KPI Guidance Tool

Food Beverage and Agriculture
KPI SetAssessment NameKPI TitleCalculation & ScopeCertifications, Standards & ToolsBackground InformationDefinitions
Animal FeedAnimal FeedAnimal Feed FormulationMethods for calculating B1-B4 can include, but are not limited to, Multi-Regional Input Output (MRIO) data and other Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methods.
Calculate B1 as the mass of your feed that was formulated for optimum land use change footprint, divided by the total mass of your feed, then multiply by 100. The life cycle stage in scope for B1 is on-farm production of feed ingredients. Land use change activities to consider in the assessment include but are not limited to the conversion of forests and non-forest native ecosystems and ecologically sensitive regions for the production of the crops used as priority ingredient supply for your final feed product.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your feed that was formulated for optimum greenhouse gas emissions footprint, divided by the total mass of your feed, then multiply by 100. Life cycle stages in scope for B2 are on-farm production, processing, transportation, and use of feed ingredients.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your feed that was formulated for optimum water footprint, divided by the total mass of your feed, then multiply by 100. The life cycle stage in scope for B3 includes, but is not limited to, on-farm production of feed ingredients.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your feed that was formulated for optimum biodiversity impacts footprint, divided by the total mass of your feed, then multiply by 100. The life cycle stage in scope for B4 is on-farm production of feed ingredients. Biodiversity topics to consider in the assessment include but are not limited to: habitat protection and restoration for sensitive species such as pollinators, birds, bats, and native species; crop rotation/intercropping; conservation buffers; cover crops; and invasive species management.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
N/APriority Ingredients - Animal Feed: Priority ingredients for the Animal Feed Key Performance Indicators include but are not limited to:_x000D_
- animals: rendered animal protein, oils, and fats from the slaughter of food production animals and other animals._x000D_
- forage: alfalfa meal and hay, grass hay, corn plant, and soybean hay._x000D_
- grains: barley, corn, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat._x000D_
- oils and fats from plants: palm, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, rapeseeds._x000D_
- plant protein products: canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean feed and meal._x000D_
- processed grain by-products: distillers grains products, brewers dried grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, and wheat bran.
Biodiversity footprint: The total impact of a commodity, product, ingredient, component, material, or company on biodiversity.

Feed formulation: Feed formulation is the process of combining different feed ingredients in proportions necessary to provide the animal with proper amounts of nutrients needed at a particular stage of production.

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions footprint: The total GHG emissions generated by a commodity, product, ingredient, component, material, or company.

Land use change footprint: The total land use change generated by a commodity, product, ingredient, component, material, or company.

Optimum feed formulation: Optimum feed formulation takes into account the sustainability of feed ingredients, composition and quality, nutrient variability, nutrient digestibility and availability, relative value, palatability, inclusion rates, effect on meat, egg, or milk quality, cost, and other factors.

Optimum: A state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced.

Water footprint: The total impact of a commodity, product, ingredient, component, material, or company on water quality and quantity.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedCertification - SoyCalculate B1 as the mass of your crop supply that was RTRS-certified, divided by the total mass of your crop supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your crop supply that was ProTerra-certified, divided by the total mass of your crop supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your crop supply that was ISCC-certified, divided by the total mass of your crop supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your crop supply that was certified under another program, divided by the total mass of your crop supply, then multiply by 100. These programs must address all of the criteria in the CGF Sustainable Soy Sourcing Guidelines, which include land conflicts; labor rights; protection of nature and control of deforestation; control of hazardous pesticides and/or fertilizers; crop rotation; accommodate a requirement for non-genetically modified soy; social criteria; protecting the interests of smallholders; health and safety regulations; transparent multi-stakeholder governance of the standard; and, third-party verification by independently accredited certification bodies.
The sum of B1, B2, B3, and B4 must not exceed 100%. If any supply has more than one certification, only include it in the calculation of one of the response options.
International Sustainability & Carbon Certification: ISCC is a certification system covering ecological and social sustainability requirements, greenhouse gas emissions tracking, and traceability in the supply chain. An ISSC certification represents reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, avoidance of high carbon stock land, biodiversity management, sustainable agricultural practices, and human rights protection. https://www.iscc-system.org/

ProTerra Certification: The ProTerra Certification aims to measure good agricultural practices, the protection of high conservation value areas, biodiversity, and worker and community rights. Social responsibility and environmental sustainability are the focus of the principles and guidance included in the certification. https://www.proterrafoundation.org/news/the-new-proterra-certification-standard-version-4-0-is-out-3/

Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS): The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a multi-stakeholder initiative that has developed a certification scheme that requires implementation of sustainable production principles and criteria encompassing several sustainability issues associated with soy production. These criteria include land conversion, deforestation, pesticide and fertilizers application, forced and child labor use, labor rights and worker health and safety. http://www.responsiblesoy.org/

U.S. Soy Sustainability Assurance Protocol (SSAP): The U.S. Soy Sustainability Assurance Protocol (SSAP) is a multi-stakeholder initiative that has developed a certification scheme that requires implementation of sustainable production principles and criteria encompassing several sustainability issues associated with soy production. https://ussec.org/resources/ssap-2/
N/AN/A
Animal FeedAnimal FeedDeforestation and Land Conversion - Priority Ingredient SourcingPriority ingredients are those ingredients that are estimated to have the greatest environmental and social impacts in the product category based on their relative mass in the category or on the contribution to key issues. Priority ingredients are listed in the Background Information below.
Calculate B1 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that was provided by ingredient producers that have been determined to be low-risk for the conversion of forests to non-forest use, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. A ingredient producer can be considered low-risk for conversion to non-forest use when one of the following is true: The ingredient producer is located in a jurisdiction that is assessed to be low-risk by a risk classification analysis; the ingredient producer is located in a jurisdiction that is assessed to be high-risk by a risk classification analysis but corrective actions are taken where needed; or the site risk was determined to be low by an on-site audit. In B1 you may include your priority ingredient supply that has been certified by Rainforest Alliance, Fair Trade USA, Fairtrade International, and Fair For Life, or SAI Platform Silver FSA-verified.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that was provided by ingredient producers that have had zero conversion of HCV forests since January 1, 2010, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply from all ingredient producers, then multiply by 100. In B2 you may include your priority ingredient supply that has been certified by Rainforest Alliance, Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), Roundtable on Responsible Soy (RTRS), International Sustainability and Carbon Certification (ISCC), and Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC).
Calculate B3 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that was provided by ingredient producers that have had zero conversion of HCS forests since January 1, 2010, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply from all ingredient producers, then multiply by 100. In B3 you may include your priority ingredient supply that has been certified by Rainforest Alliance.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that was provided by ingredient producers that have had zero deforestation since January 1, 2010 divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply from all ingredient producers, then multiply by 100. In B4 you may include your priority ingredient supply that has been certified by Rainforest Alliance.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that was provided by ingredient producers with zero conversion of HCV and HCS non-forest lands since January 1, 2010 divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply from all ingredient producers, then multiply by 100. HCV and HSC non-forest lands include HCV and HCS non-forest native ecosystems and ecologically sensitive regions, including but not limited to grasslands and Gran Chaco region in South America.
Zero deforestation means that since January 1, 2010, no existing forest was converted to non-forest use for the production of the priority ingredients used in your products. Offsets or zero-net deforestation are not included in this definition. Land on which deforestation has occurred since 2010 may be considered to have zero deforestation if restored to its previous state as determined by tree cover, species composition, stored carbon, and all other relevant factors. The absence of deforestation must be confirmed using monitoring of the specific land tracts where the ingredient originated, such as remote sensing, audits, or other direct observations.
For B1-B5, include all plant-based priority ingredients and beef. For plant-based priority ingredients, ingredient producers are the growing operations. For beef, only include the finishing stage.
The cut-off date of January 1, 2010 after which forest conversion is prohibited is chosen to ensure a common range of periods (not very recent or long standing cut-off dates) that most methodologies and sustainability initiatives establish and apply for forest, HCV, HCS, and deforestation.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
The maximum possible response for each response option is 100%. However, multiple responses may be applicable to the same portion of your priority ingredient supply. For example, supply included in the calculation of B2, B3, and/or B4 could also be included in the calculation of B1 if the stated conditions are also met.
Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC): Certification program for responsible aquaculture. https://www.asc-aqua.org/

Fair Trade USA: Fair Trade USA provides several standards that address environmental stewardship, income sustainability, community, individual well-being and empowerment for producers. https://www.fairtradecertified.org/business/standards

Fair for Life Certification Program: The Fair Life program provides certification for fair trade and responsible supply chains. The goal of Fair for Life is to ensure social and economic benefits to socioeconomically disadvantaged agricultural producers and workers and to ensure that smallholder producers receive a fair share. http://www.fairforlife.org/

Fairtrade International Certification: Fairtrade International provides several standards (e.g. for smallholders and workers), and a certification through FLOCERT. Fairtrade aims to improve the livelihoods of smallholders and workers amongst others via fair trade relationships. https://www.fairtrade.net/about/certification

International Sustainability & Carbon Certification: ISCC is a certification system covering ecological and social sustainability requirements, greenhouse gas emissions tracking, and traceability in the supply chain. An ISSC certification represents reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, avoidance of high carbon stock land, biodiversity management, sustainable agricultural practices, and human rights protection. https://www.iscc-system.org/

Rainforest Alliance Sustainable Agriculture Standard: Rainforest Alliance has two certifications: farm and chain of custody. The standard encompasses all three pillars of sustainability—social, economic, and environmental. RA is currently developing a new certification program, following their 2018 merger with UTZ. Since 2018 RA has also become the sole owner and operator of the 2017 SAN Standard. https://www.rainforest-alliance.org/business/solutions/certification/agriculture/

Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS): The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a multi-stakeholder initiative that has developed a certification scheme that requires implementation of sustainable production principles and criteria encompassing several sustainability issues associated with soy production. These criteria include land conversion, deforestation, pesticide and fertilizers application, forced and child labor use, labor rights and worker health and safety. http://www.responsiblesoy.org/

SAI Platform - Farm Sustainability Assessment (SAI-FSA): The SAI Platform Farm Sustainability Assessment (SAI-FSA) is an easy-to-use tool that assesses farm environmental, social, and economic sustainability. The FSA is based on SAI Platform’s Principles and Practices for sustainable agriculture and can be used by farmers as a benchmarking tool for comparing various certification schemes and proprietary codes. http://www.fsatool.com/

The HCS Approach Toolkit: This High Carbon Stock Approach Toolkit takes practitioners through the steps in identifying HCS forest, from initial stratification of the vegetation using satellite images and field plots, through a decision tree process to assess the conservation value of the HCS forest patches in the landscape and ensure communities’ rights and livelihoods are respected, to making the final conservation and land use map. http://highcarbonstock.org/the-hcs-approach-toolkit/
Greenpeace High Carbon Stock Approach: This website provides information about how to identify High Carbon Stock forests. https://www.greenpeace.org/archive-international/en/campaigns/forests/solutions/HCS-Approach/

High Carbon Stock Approach: This website provides a standardized methodology for identifying natural, high carbon stock forest areas. http://highcarbonstock.org

High Conservation Value Resource Network: This resource provides common guidance for how to identify, manage, and monitor High Conservation Value forest areas. https://hcvnetwork.org/

Jurisdictional and Nested REDD+ (JNR): This website describes a pathway for existing and new projects to be integrated or 'nested' within broader jurisdictional REDD+ programs in order to quantify carbon benefits for individual conservation projects. https://verra.org/project/jurisdictional-and-nested-redd-framework/

Priority Ingredients - Animal Feed: Priority ingredients for the Animal Feed Key Performance Indicators include but are not limited to:_x000D_
- animals: rendered animal protein, oils, and fats from the slaughter of food production animals and other animals._x000D_
- forage: alfalfa meal and hay, grass hay, corn plant, and soybean hay._x000D_
- grains: barley, corn, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat._x000D_
- oils and fats from plants: palm, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, rapeseeds._x000D_
- plant protein products: canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean feed and meal._x000D_
- processed grain by-products: distillers grains products, brewers dried grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, and wheat bran.

SAN Sustainable Agriculture Framework: The Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) Sustainable Agriculture Framework is a modular, outcome-based tool that focuses on sustainability as a central part of agricultural management. The flexible framework is designed to address challenges and desired outcomes specific to local contexts and covers ten environmental, social, and economic impact areas. https://www.sustainableagriculture.eco/sustainable-agriculture-framework/

WWF High Conservation Value Forests: This website provides information describing the underlying concept of High Conservation Value forests. http://wwf.panda.org/?93560/High-Conservation-Value-Forests-The-concept-in-theory-and-practice
Cut-off dates: The point in time after which organizations cannot have engaged in unsustainable practices.

Deforestation: The direct human-induced conversion of forested land to non-forested land.

Ecologically sensitive regions: Include but are not limited to High Conservation Value Areas, Protected Areas, and World Wildlife Fund's Priority 200 Ecoregions.

Forest: An area of land that is dominantly covered by trees and that is established naturally or by management activities such as planting or seeding. It does not include land areas that are predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. It includes Primary forest and Secondary forest.

High Carbon Stock (HCS) forest: Forest areas with a significant amount of carbon stored within the vegetation and soil. Burning and clearing HCS forests releases stored carbon as greenhouse gas emissions. Different initiatives have set thresholds for identifying High Carbon Stock forests.

High Conservation Value (HCV) forest: Forested areas that support natural concentrations and distribution of species including significant species and ecosystems (e.g., endemic or endangered species, refuges), provide the basic services of nature in critical conditions (e.g., watershed protection, erosion control), and are fundamental to meeting the basic needs and traditional cultural identity of local communities.

Land conversion: The human-induced change of the prevailing physical and ecological conditions of an area of land to facilitate a new use or function. Examples include conversion of forests for pasture; conversion of native grasslands or other ecosystems for crop production, grazing, or other uses; conversion of farmland for urban development; and draining marshes or wetlands to create dry land.

Native ecosystems: Lands that have not been previously cultivated, cleared, drained or otherwise irrevocably altered that retain a dominant and characteristic native community of living organisms (as opposed to invasive or introduced species) which collectively function to provide unique value and services.

Non-forest: An area of land that is no longer dominated by trees.

Primary forest: A forest that has never been logged or cut and has developed following natural disturbances and under natural processes, regardless of its age.

Secondary forest: A forest that has been logged and has recovered naturally or artificially. It also includes degraded forest which is a secondary forest that has lost, through human activities, the structure, function, species composition or productivity normally associated with a natural forest type expected on that site.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedEnvironmental Impacts - Ingredient ProcessingScope 1 and 2 emissions are defined by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Standard (2015).
Calculate B1 as the mass of ingredients purchased from suppliers that reported emissions, divided by the total mass of ingredients purchased from all suppliers, then multiply by 100.
Reporting can occur through public disclosure or private disclosure from the supplier to your organization directly or through another party.
If suppliers completed the CDP Climate Change 2020 Questionnaire, refer to C6.1 and C6.3 to determine if they report emissions.
Calculate B2 as the mass of ingredients purchased from suppliers that reported their annual water use, divided by the total mass of ingredients purchased from all suppliers, then multiply by 100.
Water use is defined as the total amount of withdrawals from municipal and private water providers, surface water, groundwater, or wells. Supplier water use reporting can occur through public disclosure or private disclosure from the supplier to your organization directly or through another party.
If suppliers completed the CDP Water Security 2020 Questionnaire, refer to W1.2b, W1.2h, and W5.1a to determine if they report water use.
Perform these calculations using purchasing data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
The priority ingredients for specific categories of products are listed in the Background Information. For all other categories of products, the priority ingredients are those ingredients (except added water) making up at least 80% of the mass of the ingredient supply for the products being evaluated by the THESIS KPI set. Ingredients that may fall below the 80% cut-off but have evidence of significant environmental or social impact should also be considered priority ingredients. Examples of such ingredients include, but are not limited to: animal and plant-based agents used in food products, such as casein, gelatin, isinglass, fish oil, fish meal, egg whites, bone char, lard, palm oil, soy oil, soy meal, gum arabic, bee products, and vanilla.
Palm oil should not be included in this calculation as it is covered in a separate question.
The Background Information section below provides detailed descriptions of the priority ingredients for a particular product being evaluated by this THESIS KPI set.
Greenhouse Gas Protocol: Calculation Tools: This site provides a list of sector toolsets developed by GHG Protocol, third-party databases, and other tools based on the GHG Protocol standards that can be used to calculate greenhouse gas inventories for use in emissions calculations. https://ghgprotocol.org/calculation-toolsCDP Climate Change Questionnaire: The CDP Climate Change Questionnaire provides questions that assess a company's greenhouse gas emissions, goals, and management. The report provided by CDP provides the overview of the results from companies responding to the request. https://www.cdp.net/en/guidance/guidance-for-companies

CDP Water Information Request: The CDP Water Information Request provides questions that assess a company's water use, goals, and management. The report provided by CDP provides the overview of the results from companies responding to the request. CDP can be contacted to respond to the Water Information Request. https://www.cdp.net/en/guidance/guidance-for-companies

GRI G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines: The GRI G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines provide a standard set of metrics for companies to report on material environmental, social, and economic impacts, actions, and outcomes. https://www.globalreporting.org/standards/

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol Corporate Standard: The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol provides guidance and is a useful resource published by the World Resources Institute with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development as a guide for monitoring and accounting for greenhouse gas emissions. https://ghgprotocol.org/corporate-standard

Priority Ingredients - Animal Feed: Priority ingredients for the Animal Feed Key Performance Indicators include but are not limited to:_x000D_
- animals: rendered animal protein, oils, and fats from the slaughter of food production animals and other animals._x000D_
- forage: alfalfa meal and hay, grass hay, corn plant, and soybean hay._x000D_
- grains: barley, corn, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat._x000D_
- oils and fats from plants: palm, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, rapeseeds._x000D_
- plant protein products: canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean feed and meal._x000D_
- processed grain by-products: distillers grains products, brewers dried grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, and wheat bran.
Greenhouse gas: Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons.

Water use: Water use is defined as total withdrawals from municipal and private water providers, surface water, groundwater, or wells.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedFarm-level Environmental Impacts - Animal-based Priority Ingredient SourcingPriority ingredients are those ingredients that are estimated to have the greatest environmental and social impacts in the product category, based on their relative mass in the category or on the contribution to key issues. Priority ingredients are listed in the Background Information below.
Calculate C1 as the mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply that came from animal farm operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to reduce air emissions in animal housing systems, during manure storage, and during manure application divided by the total mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Examples of air emission reduction techniques that may be considered include, but are not limited to, the following:
Housing systems: Reduction of the emitting surface, use of slatted floors, separation of liquid and solids, use of air scrubbers, and drying of manure.
Manure storage: Fully covering the slurry storage with a solid cover, or manure cooling, acidification, and anaerobic digestion.
Manure application: Injectors (e.g., slot injectors, deep injectors, arable injectors), band spreaders (e.g., trailing hose, trailing shoes), and incorporation of manure into soil.
Calculate C2 as the mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply that came from animal farm operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in an animal health program that addresses antibiotic use, divided by the total mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. The animal health program should include farm-specific plans that outline how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare and that are written and regularly updated by the farmer, in collaboration with a veterinarian or other relevant technical advisors.
Calculate C3 as the mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply that came from animal farm operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to reduce farm-level greenhouse gas emissions, divided by the total mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. Programs to reduce farm-level greenhouse gas emissions should take into account the major sources of emissions, including activities at animal farm operations and feed sourcing.
Calculate C4 as the mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply that came from animal farm operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to implement nutrient management plans, divided by the total mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. Nutrient management plans must meet the criteria of the EPA Comprehensive Nutrient Management Planning (CNMP) or the SAI Platform Farmer Sustainability Assessment (FSA) or equivalent. Nutrient management plans of animal farm operations should at least address amount, form, placement, and timing of the application of manure and fertilizers to fields or crops. They must also include strategies to minimize emissions from storage of manure and fertilizers.
Calculate C5 as the mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply that came from animal farm operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to reduce the environmental impacts of farm-level water use, divided by the total mass of your animal-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. Programs to reduce the environmental impacts of farm-level water use should take into account the major sources of farm-level water consumption, including livestock drinking, livestock misting, cleaning and sanitation of animal housing units, cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment, milk pre-cooling, and irrigation water used for both purchased and non-purchased feed, where applicable.
For purposes of this question, engagement is defined as active supplier-buyer collaboration to address farm-level environmental issues and can include establishing and communicating continuous improvement goals, implementing best management practices, measuring outcomes, and sharing data relative to program goals. To be included in your calculations for C1-C5, the program must be publicly disclosed and include regular public reporting on progress made relative to program goals. If your company does not have a program in place to address the issue in a given response option, enter 0% for that response option.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator: Harnessing the power of collaboration across the agricultural value chain and locally-led conservation solutions, Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator provides a process-based standard for delivering sustainable outcomes for agriculture, people and the planet. The hallmark of the Accelerator’s approach lies in a process-based approach to advancing continuous improvement, which is grounded in a foundation that delivers solutions to global sustainable development priorities while also addressing local natural resource concerns. These projects utilize the power of voluntary, and often market-driven, solutions to incentivize improved environmental outcomes and enhance farmer livelihoods. By following a standardized and validated approach, these project pathways can leverage the collective action of the value chain to support resilient ecosystems and enhance farmer livelihoods. The Accelerator currently covers alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat produced in the U.S. and Canada. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

COMET-Farm: COMET-Farm is a tool that helps farmers and ranchers determine the greenhouse gas emissions associated with their farming and ranching practices. The tool includes alternative future management scenarios and determines changes in greenhouse gas emissions and carbon relative to the current management scenario. http://cometfarm.nrel.colostate.edu/

Calculator for Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops: SISC metrics, and the SISC calculator function to suit the specific needs of fruit, nut and vegetable growers and their supply chain partners. This calculator allows tier one suppliers to request growers to calculate any one, or combination of, the following metrics: yield, on farm energy use/ GHG’s, nitrogen use, phosphorus surplus, applied water use, irrigation water use efficiency, habitat/biodiversity, soil organic matter and food loss for specialty crop (all fruits, nuts, and vegetable) farms across North America. This calculator, and SISC metrics, can also be used globally. https://www.stewardshipindex.org/sisc-stewardship-calculator

Cool Farm Tool: This calculator is available globally and calculates greenhouse gas emissions associated with farms, processing facilities, and transportation for many agriculture and livestock products. http://www.coolfarmtool.org/CoolFarmTool

DEFRA guide on reducing air pollution on-farms: The United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs and Environment (DEFRA) provides an easily accessible guidance document about preventing and minimizing air pollution from farming. The guide provides also information about air emission reduction techniques that can be deployed on-farm. https://www.gov.uk/reducing-air-pollution-on-farms

European Integrated Farming Framework: The European Integrated Farming Framework, developed by the European Initiative for Sustainable Development in Agriculture, is a set of guidelines and suggested practices for sustainable agricultural production. The framework addresses human and social capital; energy efficiency; water use and protection; climate change and air quality; soil management; crop nutrition; crop health and protection; animal husbandry, health, and welfare; landscape and nature conservation; and waste management and pollution control. http://sustainable-agriculture.org/integrated-farming/

Federation of Veterinarians of Europe - Antibiotic Resistance: Prudent use of antibiotics implies the exclusion of preventative and sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics including growth promotion and feed efficiency.  According to this paper, "Prudent use of antibiotics is an integral part of good veterinary practices.  It is an attitude to maximize therapeutic efficacy and minimize selection of resistant micro-organisms. Prudent use principles are a guide for optimal use antibiotics. They should not be interpreted so restrictively as to replace professional judgement of practitioners or to compromise animal welfare." https://fve.org/publications/fve-guidelines-responsible-use-of-antibiotics/

Field to Market's Fieldprint Platform: Utilized by Insight and Innovation Projects enrolled in Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator, the Fieldprint Platform calculates and aggregates field-level outcomes for land use efficiency, soil conservation, irrigation water use efficiency, energy use efficiency, and greenhouse gas emissions for U.S. alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat farms. It also provides index scores for soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus impacts on water quality, and biodiversity at the field and farm level. The Platform offers an optional module to quantify soil carbon estimates if projects wish to calculate sequestration alongside avoided emissions. In addition, farmers have the ability to compare individual sustainability performance against project, state, and national benchmarks to assess opportunities for continuous improvement. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/fieldprint-platform/

Innovation Center for US Dairy Farm Smart Calculator: This calculator calculates greenhouse gases, energy use, water quality, and water use metrics for US dairy farms. http://sites.usdairy.com/farmsmart/Pages/Home.aspx

International Dairy Federation: The International Dairy Federation (IDF) guide to standard lifecycle assessment methodology for the dairy sector. https://www.fil-idf.org/idf-standing-committee-environment/life-cycle-assessment/

NIEA Water use reckoner: The Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) provides ready to use water use reckoners that help to calculate water usage on livestock farms. https://www.daera-ni.gov.uk/publications/agriculture-ready-reckoner-help-calculate-water-usage-farms

National Dairy FARM Environmental Stewardship Module: The FARM Environmental Stewardship Module provides calculation instructions to estimate the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with dairy farming. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/environmental-stewardship/

Priority Ingredients - Animal Feed: Priority ingredients for the Animal Feed Key Performance Indicators include but are not limited to:_x000D_
- animals: rendered animal protein, oils, and fats from the slaughter of food production animals and other animals._x000D_
- forage: alfalfa meal and hay, grass hay, corn plant, and soybean hay._x000D_
- grains: barley, corn, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat._x000D_
- oils and fats from plants: palm, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, rapeseeds._x000D_
- plant protein products: canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean feed and meal._x000D_
- processed grain by-products: distillers grains products, brewers dried grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, and wheat bran.

SAI Platform: Farm Sustainability Assessment FSA23-FSA29: The Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) Platform's Farm Sustainability Assessment (FSA) is a simple easy-to-use tool that assesses farm environmental, social, and economic sustainability. The FSA is based on SAI Platform’s Principles and Practices for sustainable agriculture and can be used by farmers as a benchmarking tool for comparing various certification schemes and proprietary codes. Proprietary codes FSA23-FSA29 provide requirements for nutrient management planning. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/news/discover-the-farm-sustainability-assessment-fsa/

SAI Platform: Farm Sustainability Assessment FSA51-FSA62: The Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) Platform's Farm Sustainability Assessment (FSA) is a simple easy-to-use tool that assesses farm environmental, social, and economic sustainability. The FSA is based on SAI Platform’s Principles and Practices for sustainable agriculture and can be used by farmers as a benchmarking tool for comparing various certification schemes and proprietary codes. Proprietary codes FSA51-FSA62 provide requirements for irrigation record keeping. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/news/discover-the-farm-sustainability-assessment-fsa/

SAI Platform: Sustainable Performance Assessment (SAI-SPA): The SAI Platform provides fact sheets and guidelines for sustainable agriculture assessment including metrics. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/

The ‘Kringloopwijzer’: This tool calculates the nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycle at farm-level and provides annual insights into fertilizer use, nutrient surpluses and the carbon footprint of Dutch dairy farms. http://www.mijnkringloopwijzer.nl/nl/mijnkringloopwijzer/KringloopWijzer-6.htm

US Pork Checkoff Pig Production Environmental Footprint Calculator: The calculator calculates greenhouse gas emissions and water use for US pig barns. https://www.pork.org/environment/

USAD: Comprehensive Nutrient Management Planning (CNMP): This USDA resource addresses nutrient management strategies. https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/technical/nra/?cid=nrcs143_014041

USDA: Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP): This website has planning tools, templates, resources, nutrient management tools, quality assurance documents and technical criteria for CNMPs. https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/wi/farmerrancher/?cid=nrcs142p2_020843

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx

Water Footprint Network: Waterfootprint.org provides various tools, assessments, and information regarding water consumption accounting. https://waterfootprint.org/en/

Weights, Measures, and Conversion Factors for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products: This publication provides information on agricultural commodity weights and measures. https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=41881

World Health Organization Critically Important Antimicrobials: The World Health Organization (WHO) published a list of antimicrobials that are critically important for human medical treatment. Critically important antimicrobials are antibiotics that match both criteria below; highly important criteria match only one criteria below: _x000D_
Criteria 1: "An antimicrobial agent which is the sole, or one of limited available therapy, to treat serious human disease." _x000D_
Criteria 2: "Antimicrobial agent is used to treat diseases caused by either (1) organisms that may be transmitted to humans from non-human sources, or (2) human diseases causes by organisms that may acquire resistance genes from nonhuman sources." https://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/antimicrobial-resistance/cia/en/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal farm operations: An area of land and its buildings, comprised of one or more locations managed together, that is used for rearing animals. This includes the growing of crops for animal feed on this land.

Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Animal-based priority ingredients: Priority ingredients that come from animals, either as primary meat products or byproducts, such as beef, chicken, dairy, eggs, fish, pork, and turkey.

Antibiotics: Medicines that destroy or inhibit bacterial growth and infections that are used in food animals for treatment, prevention of disease, increased production performance or increased feed use efficiency.

Biodiversity: The diversity of plant and animal species on the planet which includes both number of species and abundance within a species.  The rarity of species such as endemic or threatened and endangered status plays a role in biodiversity assessment and management.

Deforestation: The direct human-induced conversion of forested land to non-forested land.

Direct Suppliers: Manufacturer or supplier from whom materials, ingredients, chemicals or components are purchased and then directly incorporated into the manufacturing of a products.

Emission reduction techniques: Technologies that have been scientifically proven to reduce gaseous emissions from animal farm operations.

Fertilizer: Any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

Greenhouse gas: Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons.

Irrigation water use: Total withdrawals from municipal and private water providers, surface water, groundwater, or wells for purposes of crop irrigation. Collected rainwater is not included.

Nutrient management: The complex of activities farmers carry out to manage the amount, form, placement, and timing of the application of manure and fertilizers to fields or crops. It also includes the minimization of emissions from storage of manure and fertilizers. The purpose is to minimize airborne emissions and pollution of ground and surface water.

Processing facility: The stage of the supply chain in which a series of operations are performed for the making, treatment, preparation, or conversion of a product.

Program: An annually updated document that farmers can demonstrate on-site. The program should summarize concrete goals and a plan for how to achieve these goals.

Verified: Having previously demonstrated, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.

Water use: Water use is defined as total withdrawals from municipal and private water providers, surface water, groundwater, or wells.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedFarm-level Environmental Impacts - Plant-based Priority Ingredient SourcingPriority ingredients are those ingredients that are estimated to have the greatest environmental and social impacts in the product category, based on their relative mass in the category or on the contribution to key issues. Priority ingredients are listed in the Background Information below.
Calculate B1 as the mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply that came from farming operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to reduce the environmental impacts of fertilizer use, divided by the total mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply that came from farming operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to reduce farm-level greenhouse gas emissions, divided by the total mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply that came from farming operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to reduce the environmental impacts of irrigation water use, divided by the total mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. Any farming operation producing plant-based priority ingredients without irrigation (i.e., is rain fed) may be considered as having reported water use.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply that came from farming operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to reduce the environmental impacts of pesticide use, divided by the total mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply that came from farming operations that you, your processing facility or your direct suppliers, have engaged in a program to reduce soil erosion, divided by the total mass of your plant-based priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
For purposes of this question, engagement is defined as active supplier-buyer collaboration to address farm-level environmental issues and can include establishing and communicating continuous improvement goals, implementing best management practices, measuring outcomes, and sharing data relative to program goals. To be included in your calculations for B1-B5, the program must be publicly disclosed and include regular public reporting on progress made relative to program goals. If your company does not have a program in place to address the issue in a given response option, enter 0% for that response option.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator: Harnessing the power of collaboration across the agricultural value chain and locally-led conservation solutions, Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator provides a process-based standard for delivering sustainable outcomes for agriculture, people and the planet. The hallmark of the Accelerator’s approach lies in a process-based approach to advancing continuous improvement, which is grounded in a foundation that delivers solutions to global sustainable development priorities while also addressing local natural resource concerns. These projects utilize the power of voluntary, and often market-driven, solutions to incentivize improved environmental outcomes and enhance farmer livelihoods. By following a standardized and validated approach, these project pathways can leverage the collective action of the value chain to support resilient ecosystems and enhance farmer livelihoods. The Accelerator currently covers alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat produced in the U.S. and Canada. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/Calculator for Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops: SISC metrics, and the SISC calculator function to suit the specific needs of fruit, nut and vegetable growers and their supply chain partners. This calculator allows tier one suppliers to request growers to calculate any one, or combination of, the following metrics: yield, on farm energy use/ GHG’s, nitrogen use, phosphorus surplus, applied water use, irrigation water use efficiency, habitat/biodiversity, soil organic matter and food loss for specialty crop (all fruits, nuts, and vegetable) farms across North America. This calculator, and SISC metrics, can also be used globally. https://www.stewardshipindex.org/sisc-stewardship-calculator

Cool Farm Tool: This calculator is available globally and calculates greenhouse gas emissions associated with farms, processing facilities, and transportation for many agriculture and livestock products. http://www.coolfarmtool.org/CoolFarmTool

Field to Market's Fieldprint Platform: Utilized by Insight and Innovation Projects enrolled in Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator, the Fieldprint Platform calculates and aggregates field-level outcomes for land use efficiency, soil conservation, irrigation water use efficiency, energy use efficiency, and greenhouse gas emissions for U.S. alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat farms. It also provides index scores for soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus impacts on water quality, and biodiversity at the field and farm level. The Platform offers an optional module to quantify soil carbon estimates if projects wish to calculate sequestration alongside avoided emissions. In addition, farmers have the ability to compare individual sustainability performance against project, state, and national benchmarks to assess opportunities for continuous improvement. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/fieldprint-platform/

Priority Ingredients - Animal Feed: Priority ingredients for the Animal Feed Key Performance Indicators include but are not limited to:_x000D_
- animals: rendered animal protein, oils, and fats from the slaughter of food production animals and other animals._x000D_
- forage: alfalfa meal and hay, grass hay, corn plant, and soybean hay._x000D_
- grains: barley, corn, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat._x000D_
- oils and fats from plants: palm, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, rapeseeds._x000D_
- plant protein products: canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean feed and meal._x000D_
- processed grain by-products: distillers grains products, brewers dried grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, and wheat bran.

SAI Platform: Sustainable Performance Assessment (SAI-SPA): The SAI Platform provides fact sheets and guidelines for sustainable agriculture assessment including metrics. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/

Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops (SISC): SISC provides guidance for calculating irrigation water use, energy use, nitrogen use, phosphorus surplus, and soil organic matter on U.S. specialty crop farms. https://www.stewardshipindex.org/
Biodiversity: The diversity of plant and animal species on the planet which includes both number of species and abundance within a species.  The rarity of species such as endemic or threatened and endangered status plays a role in biodiversity assessment and management.

CO2e: Carbon dioxide equivalent; a metric that expresses the impact of a greenhouse gas in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has the same global warming potential.

Cover crops: A crop planted to improve or maintain soil, water and biodiversity quality, and to help control pests and disease of agricultural fields.

Deforestation: The direct human-induced conversion of forested land to non-forested land.

Direct Suppliers: Manufacturer or supplier from whom materials, ingredients, chemicals or components are purchased and then directly incorporated into the manufacturing of a products.

Farming operation: An area of land and its buildings, comprised of one or more locations managed together that is used for growing crops that are delivered for further processing or as ingredients to other final products.

Fertilizer: Any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

Greenhouse gas: Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons.

Growing operation: An area of land and its buildings (including greenhouses), comprised of one or more locations managed together, that is used for growing crops delivered fresh to market or to processors.

Irrigation water use: Total withdrawals from municipal and private water providers, surface water, groundwater, or wells for purposes of crop irrigation. Collected rainwater is not included.

Organic fertilizers: Fertilizers derived from animal or vegetable matter. Examples include peat, animal waste (manure or other wastes), plant waste from agriculture, and sewage sludge.

Pesticide: A substance or mixture of substances used to prevent, destroy, or control a pest (e.g., weeds, fungi, bacteria, unwanted animal species) that are harmful to or interfere with the production, processing, storage, transport, or marketing of agricultural products.

Plant-based priority ingredients: Ingredients that come from plants either as primary products or byproducts including vegetables, fruit, beans, nuts, seed oils, grains, sugar, coffee, and tea.

Processing facility: The stage of the supply chain in which a series of operations are performed for the making, treatment, preparation, or conversion of a product.

Program: An annually updated document that farmers can demonstrate on-site. The program should summarize concrete goals and a plan for how to achieve these goals.

Site-based environmental health, and safety program: A program that seeks to protect workers, communities and the environment by accounting for the specific conditions and circumstances of each physical site or facility.

Soil erosion: The loss of soil from a field due to wind or surface water runoff.

Synthetic fertilizers: Fertilizers produced by chemical synthesis from inorganic starting materials.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedGreenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity - ManufacturingIncluded in the scope of this question are fuels combusted and electricity used in facilities that perform final manufacturing activities, as well as trace gases released during manufacture. This may include some or all of your organization's corporate scope 1 and 2 emissions, as well as scope 1 and 2 emissions from any final manufacturing facilities not within your organization's financial or operational control (e.g., contract manufacturers). Excluded from the scope of this question are GHG allowances, offsets, and credits.
You may calculate B1 using product-specific data or estimate intensity via facility data that is not product specific. If using product-specific data, calculate B1 as the average of each product's greenhouse gas emissions intensity, weighted by the total mass produced of each product.
If using facility data, calculate B1 as the average of each final manufacturing facility's greenhouse gas emissions intensity, weighted by the total mass of final product produced. If the manufacturing facilities produce more than one category of product, only weight using the total mass of production specific to the product category in question.
Calculate B2 as the mass of final products for which you are able to obtain data, divided by total mass of final products produced, then multiply by 100. For each final manufacturing facility, follow the instructions in the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Standard (2015) to calculate scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions generated from electricity purchased or produced, fuels combusted, and trace gases released, and then add them together. Worksheets are available on the GHG Protocol web site to facilitate these calculations.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
The data required for the CDP Climate Change 2020 Questionnaire combined with production data can be used to calculate your response (refer to C7.3b and C7.6b). The data required for "Disclosure 302-1 Energy consumption within the organization" in GRI 302: Energy 2016 or "Disclosure 305-1 Direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions" and "Disclosure 305-2 Energy indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions" in GRI 305: Emissions 2016 can also be used to calculate your response.
CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: The CDP Climate Change Questionnaire provides questions that assess a company's greenhouse gas emissions, goals, and management. The report provided by CDP provides the overview of the results from companies responding to the request. https://www.cdp.net/en/guidance/guidance-for-companies

GRI G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines: The GRI G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines provide a standard set of metrics for companies to report on material environmental, social, and economic impacts, actions, and outcomes. https://www.globalreporting.org/standards/

Greenhouse Gas Protocol: Calculation Tools: This site provides a list of sector toolsets developed by GHG Protocol, third-party databases, and other tools based on the GHG Protocol standards that can be used to calculate greenhouse gas inventories for use in emissions calculations. https://ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools

THESIS Calculation Tool - GHG emissions intensity KPIs: TSC has created THESIS KPI Calculation Tools to help suppliers in answering specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for THESIS. Each tool includes step by step instructions on how to use the tool to generate your KPI response. https://sustainabilityconsortium.org/download/calculation-tool-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions-intensity-manufacturing/

THESIS Help Center Video: GHG emissions intensity Calculation Tool: TSC has created THESIS KPI Calculation Tools to help suppliers in answering specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for THESIS. This is a step-by-step video on how to use the GHG emissions intensity Calculation Tool. https://vimeo.com/863813590
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol Corporate Standard: The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol provides guidance and is a useful resource published by the World Resources Institute with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development as a guide for monitoring and accounting for greenhouse gas emissions. https://ghgprotocol.org/corporate-standardCO2e: Carbon dioxide equivalent; a metric that expresses the impact of a greenhouse gas in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has the same global warming potential.

Greenhouse gas: Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedGreenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity - On-farmCalculate B1 as the average of the most recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity estimates for the farms that produced the crop supply in your priority ingredients, weighted by the mass of priority ingredient supplied by each farm. For each farm, calculate GHG emissions intensity as the mass of all GHGs emitted, divided by the mass of crop harvested. Include the crop grown between the end of the harvest of the previous crop through the harvest of the crop that produced your feed ingredient supply.
For this KPI, crop supply covers the priority ingredients in your feed supply. Calculate B1 as the average of the most recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity estimates for the farms that produced the crops used to produce your priority ingredient supply, weighted by the mass of crop supplied by each farm. For each farm, calculate GHG emissions intensity as the mass of all GHGs emitted, divided by the mass of crop harvested. Include the crop grown between the end of the harvest of the previous crop through the harvest of the crop that produced your supply.
For conversion purposes, 1 lb = 0.454 kg, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric tonnes, and 1 cwt = 0.051 metric tonnes. To convert bushels from volume to weight, see the USDA Weights, Measures, and Conversion Factors for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products, listed in the Background Information.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your priority ingredient supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. To answer B1 using regional estimates, it is recommended you use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the crop is grown. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system of the crop supply in your priority ingredients, based on production data not older than 3 years before the harvest date of this supply, and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply for which you were able to estimate the GHG emissions with primary data or regional estimates, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
To calculate GHG emissions intensity, use one of the tools listed in Certifications, Standards, and Tools below. If not using the tools listed here, base your calculations on the guidelines given in the SAI Platform Sustainable Performance Assessment or in PAS2050:2011, listed in the Background Information.
COMET-Farm: COMET-Farm is a tool that helps farmers and ranchers determine the greenhouse gas emissions associated with their farming and ranching practices. The tool includes alternative future management scenarios and determines changes in greenhouse gas emissions and carbon relative to the current management scenario. http://cometfarm.nrel.colostate.edu/

Cool Farm Tool: This calculator is available globally and calculates greenhouse gas emissions associated with farms, processing facilities, and transportation for many agriculture and livestock products. http://www.coolfarmtool.org/CoolFarmTool

Field to Market's Fieldprint Platform: Utilized by Insight and Innovation Projects enrolled in Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator, the Fieldprint Platform calculates and aggregates field-level outcomes for land use efficiency, soil conservation, irrigation water use efficiency, energy use efficiency, and greenhouse gas emissions for U.S. alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat farms. It also provides index scores for soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus impacts on water quality, and biodiversity at the field and farm level. The Platform offers an optional module to quantify soil carbon estimates if projects wish to calculate sequestration alongside avoided emissions. In addition, farmers have the ability to compare individual sustainability performance against project, state, and national benchmarks to assess opportunities for continuous improvement. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/fieldprint-platform/

Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator: Harnessing the power of collaboration across the agricultural value chain and locally-led conservation solutions, Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator provides a process-based standard for delivering sustainable outcomes for agriculture, people and the planet. The hallmark of the Accelerator’s approach lies in a process-based approach to advancing continuous improvement, which is grounded in a foundation that delivers solutions to global sustainable development priorities while also addressing local natural resource concerns. These projects utilize the power of voluntary, and often market-driven, solutions to incentivize improved environmental outcomes and enhance farmer livelihoods. By following a standardized and validated approach, these project pathways can leverage the collective action of the value chain to support resilient ecosystems and enhance farmer livelihoods. The Accelerator currently covers alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat produced in the U.S. and Canada. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/

Grow Asia Counter: This tool estimates how changes in management practices impact the greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of cocoa, coffee, tea, corn, rice, potatoes, and horticultural products in Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam. http://counter.growasia.org/

THESIS Calculation Tool - GHG emissions intensity KPIs: TSC has created THESIS KPI Calculation Tools to help suppliers in answering specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for THESIS. Each tool includes step by step instructions on how to use the tool to generate your KPI response. https://sustainabilityconsortium.org/download/calculation-tool-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions-intensity-manufacturing/

THESIS Help Center Video: GHG emissions intensity Calculation Tool: TSC has created THESIS KPI Calculation Tools to help suppliers in answering specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for THESIS. This is a step-by-step video on how to use the GHG emissions intensity Calculation Tool. https://vimeo.com/863813590

THESIS Help Center Video: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity - Growing Operations KPI: Short video tutorial on the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity - Growing Operations KPI. Use case-sensitive password 'thesis' when prompted. https://vimeo.com/448646995
American Carbon Registry Voluntary Emission Reductions in Rice Management Systems: The Voluntary Emission Reductions in Rice Management Systems provides a methodology for determining the methane emissions associated with flooded rice fields. The methodology is applicable to the major rice-producing regions of the U.S. http://americancarbonregistry.org/carbon-accounting/standards-methodologies/emission-reductions-in-rice-management-systems

California Compliance Offset Protocol Rice Cultivation Projects: The Compliance Offset Protocol Rice Cultivation Projects quantifies and reports greenhouse gas emission reductions resulting from improvements in rice cultivation practices. The protocol allows rice farmers in California, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri to sell offsets generated from their emissions reductions in California's carbon market. https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/sites/default/files/classic//cc/capandtrade/protocols/rice/riceprotocol2015.pdf

GLOBALG.A.P.: GLOBALG.A.P. offers farm management certification for crops (fruits and vegetables, flowers and ornamentals, combinable crops, green coffee, and tea); livestock (cattle and sheep, dairy, calf and young beef, pigs, poultry, and turkey); aquaculture; chain of custody; plant propagation material; compound feed manufacturing; and livestock transport. The program also includes a risk assessment for worker health, safety, and welfare, as well as criteria for animal welfare and food safety. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/

PAS 2050: According to BSI, "PAS 2050 is a publicly available specification (PAS) providing a method for assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of goods and services (jointly referred to as "products")." https://shop.bsigroup.com/Browse-By-Subject/Environmental-Management-and-Sustainability/PAS-2050/

SAI Platform: Sustainable Performance Assessment (SAI-SPA): The SAI Platform provides fact sheets and guidelines for sustainable agriculture assessment including metrics. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/

Weights, Measures, and Conversion Factors for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products: This publication provides information on agricultural commodity weights and measures. https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=41881
CO2e: Carbon dioxide equivalent; a metric that expresses the impact of a greenhouse gas in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has the same global warming potential.

Farming operation: An area of land and its buildings, comprised of one or more locations managed together that is used for growing crops that are delivered for further processing or as ingredients to other final products.

Greenhouse gas: Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedGreenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity - ProcessingIncluded in the scope of this question are fuels combusted and electricity used in facilities that perform grain milling and flaking activities, as well as trace gases released during grain milling and flaking. This may include some or all of your organization's corporate scope 1 and 2 emissions, as well as scope 1 and 2 emissions from any milling and flaking facilities not within your organization's financial or operational control (e.g., contract milling and flaking facilities). Excluded from the scope of this question are GHG allowances, offsets, and credits.
You may calculate C1 using product-specific data or estimate intensity via facility data that is not product specific. If using product-specific data, calculate C1 as the average of each product's greenhouse gas emissions intensity, weighted by the total mass produced of each product. If using facility data, calculate C1 as the average of each milling and flaking facility's greenhouse gas emissions intensity, weighted by the total mass of final product produced. If the milling and flaking facilities produce more than one category of product, only weight using the total mass of production specific to the product category in question (e.g., grain-based ingredients).
Calculate C2 as the mass of grains supply for which you are able to obtain data, divided by total mass of grains supply produced, then multiply by 100. For each milling and flaking facility, follow the instructions in the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Standard (2015) to calculate scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions generated from electricity purchased or produced, fuels combusted, and trace gases released, and then add them together. Worksheets are available on the GHG Protocol web site to facilitate these calculations.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
The data required for the CDP Climate Change 2020 Questionnaire combined with production data can be used to calculate your response (refer to C7.3b and C7.6b). The data required for "Disclosure 302-1 Energy consumption within the organization" in GRI 302: Energy 2016 or "Disclosure 305-1 Direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions" and "Disclosure 305-2 Energy indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions" in GRI 305: Emissions 2016 can also be used to calculate your response.
CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: The CDP Climate Change Questionnaire provides questions that assess a company's greenhouse gas emissions, goals, and management. The report provided by CDP provides the overview of the results from companies responding to the request. https://www.cdp.net/en/guidance/guidance-for-companies

GRI G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines: The GRI G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines provide a standard set of metrics for companies to report on material environmental, social, and economic impacts, actions, and outcomes. https://www.globalreporting.org/standards/

Greenhouse Gas Protocol: Calculation Tools: This site provides a list of sector toolsets developed by GHG Protocol, third-party databases, and other tools based on the GHG Protocol standards that can be used to calculate greenhouse gas inventories for use in emissions calculations. https://ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools

THESIS Calculation Tool - GHG emissions intensity KPIs: TSC has created THESIS KPI Calculation Tools to help suppliers in answering specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for THESIS. Each tool includes step by step instructions on how to use the tool to generate your KPI response. https://sustainabilityconsortium.org/download/calculation-tool-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions-intensity-manufacturing/

THESIS Help Center Video: GHG emissions intensity Calculation Tool: TSC has created THESIS KPI Calculation Tools to help suppliers in answering specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for THESIS. This is a step-by-step video on how to use the GHG emissions intensity Calculation Tool. https://vimeo.com/863813590

THESIS Help Center Video: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity - Processing KPI: Short video tutorial on the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity - Processing KPI. Use case-sensitive password 'thesis' when prompted. https://vimeo.com/536525506
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol Corporate Standard: The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol provides guidance and is a useful resource published by the World Resources Institute with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development as a guide for monitoring and accounting for greenhouse gas emissions. https://ghgprotocol.org/corporate-standardCO2e: Carbon dioxide equivalent; a metric that expresses the impact of a greenhouse gas in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has the same global warming potential.

Company-owned or contract manufacturing facilities: Facilities responsible for manufacturing and assembly of final products, whether these facilities are internal or external to the respondent’s organization.

Greenhouse gas: Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedIngredient Supply MappingPriority ingredients are those ingredients that are estimated to have the greatest environmental and social impacts in the product category, based on their relative mass in the category or on the contribution to key issues. Priority ingredients are listed in the Background Information below.
Calculate B1 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that was not traced to the country, region, or farm of origin, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2, B3, and B4 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that was traced to the country, region, and farm of origin, respectively, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1, B2, B3, and B4 must be mutually exclusive and their sum must equal 100%. Any individual source of your priority ingredient supply can only be used once across the response options, and the highest level of specificity should be reported for priority ingredient supply that can be traced to more than one level of origin. For example, if you know the farm, region, and country of origin for 25% of your priority ingredient supply, report 25% in B4 (farm of origin). Then, if you know both the region and country of origin for 25% of your priority ingredient supply, report 25% in B3 (region of origin). Next, if you know only the country of origin for 30% of your priority ingredient supply, enter 30% in B2 (country of origin). Last, if you know neither the farm, region, or country or origin for the remaining 20% of your priority ingredient supply, report 20% in B1. Verify that the sum of the percentages you entered in B1-B4 does not exceed 100%: 20% (B1) + 30% (B2) + 25% (B3) + 25% (B4) = 100%.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
A country is defined as a nation-state recognized by the United Nations. A region is defined as a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department). Due to the variance in how "region" may be defined, respondents are encouraged to use a consistent interpretation from year to year when reporting data for this question. A farm is an area of land and its buildings that may be comprised of one or more locations that are managed together.
Procurement data, trade networks, or national or subnational crop production data may help to identify the origin of your priority ingredient supply.
If using any of the tools listed in Certifications, Standards, and Tools below to measure farm-level environmental impacts for any portion of your priority ingredient supply, you can enter that portion of your supply in B4. Additionally, the percent of your priority ingredient supply from GlobalG.A.P. certified farms can be included in your response for B4.
Calculator for Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops: SISC metrics, and the SISC calculator function to suit the specific needs of fruit, nut and vegetable growers and their supply chain partners. This calculator allows tier one suppliers to request growers to calculate any one, or combination of, the following metrics: yield, on farm energy use/ GHG’s, nitrogen use, phosphorus surplus, applied water use, irrigation water use efficiency, habitat/biodiversity, soil organic matter and food loss for specialty crop (all fruits, nuts, and vegetable) farms across North America. This calculator, and SISC metrics, can also be used globally. https://www.stewardshipindex.org/sisc-stewardship-calculator

Cool Farm Tool: This calculator is available globally and calculates greenhouse gas emissions associated with farms, processing facilities, and transportation for many agriculture and livestock products. http://www.coolfarmtool.org/CoolFarmTool

Field to Market's Fieldprint Platform: Utilized by Insight and Innovation Projects enrolled in Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator, the Fieldprint Platform calculates and aggregates field-level outcomes for land use efficiency, soil conservation, irrigation water use efficiency, energy use efficiency, and greenhouse gas emissions for U.S. alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat farms. It also provides index scores for soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus impacts on water quality, and biodiversity at the field and farm level. The Platform offers an optional module to quantify soil carbon estimates if projects wish to calculate sequestration alongside avoided emissions. In addition, farmers have the ability to compare individual sustainability performance against project, state, and national benchmarks to assess opportunities for continuous improvement. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/fieldprint-platform/

Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator: Harnessing the power of collaboration across the agricultural value chain and locally-led conservation solutions, Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator provides a process-based standard for delivering sustainable outcomes for agriculture, people and the planet. The hallmark of the Accelerator’s approach lies in a process-based approach to advancing continuous improvement, which is grounded in a foundation that delivers solutions to global sustainable development priorities while also addressing local natural resource concerns. These projects utilize the power of voluntary, and often market-driven, solutions to incentivize improved environmental outcomes and enhance farmer livelihoods. By following a standardized and validated approach, these project pathways can leverage the collective action of the value chain to support resilient ecosystems and enhance farmer livelihoods. The Accelerator currently covers alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat produced in the U.S. and Canada. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/

GLOBALG.A.P.: GLOBALG.A.P. offers farm management certification for crops (fruits and vegetables, flowers and ornamentals, combinable crops, green coffee, and tea); livestock (cattle and sheep, dairy, calf and young beef, pigs, poultry, and turkey); aquaculture; chain of custody; plant propagation material; compound feed manufacturing; and livestock transport. The program also includes a risk assessment for worker health, safety, and welfare, as well as criteria for animal welfare and food safety. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/

QS. Quality scheme for food: Certifications through the QS scheme allow for traceability from farm to store. https://www.q-s.de/
Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator: Harnessing the power of collaboration across the agricultural value chain and locally-led conservation solutions, Field to Market’s Continuous Improvement Accelerator provides a process-based standard for delivering sustainable outcomes for agriculture, people and the planet. The hallmark of the Accelerator’s approach lies in a process-based approach to advancing continuous improvement, which is grounded in a foundation that delivers solutions to global sustainable development priorities while also addressing local natural resource concerns. These projects utilize the power of voluntary, and often market-driven, solutions to incentivize improved environmental outcomes and enhance farmer livelihoods. By following a standardized and validated approach, these project pathways can leverage the collective action of the value chain to support resilient ecosystems and enhance farmer livelihoods. The Accelerator currently covers alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, peanuts, potato, rice, sorghum, soy, sugar beet, and wheat produced in the U.S. and Canada. https://fieldtomarket.org/our-programs/

Priority Ingredients - Animal Feed: Priority ingredients for the Animal Feed Key Performance Indicators include but are not limited to:_x000D_
- animals: rendered animal protein, oils, and fats from the slaughter of food production animals and other animals._x000D_
- forage: alfalfa meal and hay, grass hay, corn plant, and soybean hay._x000D_
- grains: barley, corn, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat._x000D_
- oils and fats from plants: palm, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, rapeseeds._x000D_
- plant protein products: canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean feed and meal._x000D_
- processed grain by-products: distillers grains products, brewers dried grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, and wheat bran.
N/A
Animal FeedAnimal FeedLabor Rights - Priority Ingredient SourcingPriority ingredients are those ingredients that are estimated to have the greatest environmental and social impacts in the product category, based on their relative mass in the category or on the contribution to key issues. Priority ingredients are listed in Background Information below.
Calculate B1 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that is covered by an internal policy that has quantitative time-bound goals related to child labor, discrimination, forced labor, and freedom of association and collective bargaining, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. Where freedom of association and collective bargaining are restricted by law, employers can use other forms of non-union employee representation and relations to respect this aspect of workers' rights.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that has been reviewed by a risk assessment which identifies high-risk areas for labor rights abuses, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
To be included in B2, a risk assessment must have been conducted by second or third parties and must have been conducted at least once every three years using a standard based on internationally recognized principles. The risk assessments and standard must be verifiable and must address labor rights abuses such as discrimination on grounds of gender, age, ethnicity or disability, physical violence, sexual harassment and abuse, child labor, forced labor, and freedom of association and collective bargaining or any other range of behaviors and practices as outlined by internationally-recognized labor standards. The standards and websites listed in Background Information below may be helpful for conducting your risk assessment(s) and for understanding appropriate corrective actions which can inform your responses.
In addition, to determine if an operation is in a high-risk area for labor rights abuses, you may utilize a country risk analysis tool. The tool should measure the strength of a country's ability to govern and enforce laws, regulations, and internationally recognized principles. The country risk assessment may be a first party systematic risk assessment, or external risk analyses tools may be utilized. The AMFORI Countries' Risk Classification tool listed below may be used to inform your response. The country risk assessment can be complemented with risks associated with specific activities, regions, and suppliers.
Calculate B3 as the number of staff responsible for procurement activities that have been trained on labor rights issues in the supply chain, divided by the total number of staff responsible for procurement activities, then multiply by 100. Include both full-time and contracted employees. The training must be verifiable. Staff training should cover child labor, discrimination, forced labor, and freedom of association and collective bargaining, as outlined by internationally-recognized labor principles. Staff training should be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices for labor rights issues and to prevent training exhaustion. Additional staff training may be required to perform job duties.
Calculate B4 as the number staff responsible for procurement activities that have been evaluated via performance metrics on labor rights improvements in the supply chain, divided by the total staff responsible for procurement activities, then multiply by 100. Evaluation on labor rights should include, child labor, discrimination, forced labor, and freedom of association and collective bargaining, as outlined by internationally-recognized labor principles. Examples of improvements include decreased incidence of child labor, forced labor, or discrimination, or an Increased worker participation in collective bargaining.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that was produced in operations that were low risk, that were high risk but corrective actions were taken, or that were audited on child labor, discrimination, forced labor, and freedom of association and collective bargaining in the last three years, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B5, audits must be verifiable and address child labor, discrimination, forced labor, and freedom of association and collective bargaining, as outlined by internationally-recognized labor principles. Examples include, but are not limited to, principles outlined by the United Nations Global Compact, the International Labour Organization Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. Where freedom of association & collective bargaining is restricted by law, employers can use other forms of non-union employee representation and relations to respect this aspect of workers' rights. Audits should be conducted by second or third parties at least once every three years, or more often depending on the requirements of the standard organization See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information. Government regulations or parties in the supply chain may initiate these audits.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question. Audits must have been conducted in the 36 months prior to the end of the 12-month period.
Amfori Country Risk Classification: This list classifies countries' risk of social injustice in an effort to assist companies in determining high and low risk for their sourcing and operations. http://duediligence.amfori.org/CountryRiskClassification

Fair for Life Certification Program: The Fair Life program provides certification for fair trade and responsible supply chains. The goal of Fair for Life is to ensure social and economic benefits to socioeconomically disadvantaged agricultural producers and workers and to ensure that smallholder producers receive a fair share. http://www.fairforlife.org/

Fairtrade International Certification: Fairtrade International provides several standards (e.g. for smallholders and workers), and a certification through FLOCERT. Fairtrade aims to improve the livelihoods of smallholders and workers amongst others via fair trade relationships. https://www.fairtrade.net/about/certification

Rainforest Alliance Sustainable Agriculture Standard: Rainforest Alliance has two certifications: farm and chain of custody. The standard encompasses all three pillars of sustainability—social, economic, and environmental. RA is currently developing a new certification program, following their 2018 merger with UTZ. Since 2018 RA has also become the sole owner and operator of the 2017 SAN Standard. https://www.rainforest-alliance.org/business/solutions/certification/agriculture/

SA8000® Standard: Social Accountability International (SAI) is a global non-governmental organization that aims to advance human rights at work via the SA8000® Standard. SA 8000 measures social performance in eight areas that are relevant for workplaces in factories and organizations worldwide. https://sa-intl.org/programs/sa8000/

Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit: Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit is an auditing system that aligns with Ethical Trading Initiative's Base Code as well International Labour Organization Conventions. It has been developed to provide a public auditing methodology and format for companies to use to assess compliance. https://www.sedex.com/our-services/smeta-audit/

Sustainable Outcomes in Agriculture (SOA) Standard: Sustainable Outcomes in Agriculture (SOA) is a standard developed by Syngenta Sustainable Solutions for measuring continuous improvement towards sustainable outcomes on farms. It provides a framework to help agricultural supply chain companies and crop producers improve outcomes in regenerative agriculture. https://assets.syngentaebiz.com/pdf/media/sustainable-outcomes-standard-v1.2.pdf
CSR Europe. Blueprint for Embedding Human Rights in Key Company Functions: The purpose of this blueprint is to provide practical support to CSR and human resource managers on how to embed human rights in the company with the aim to reduce risks for the company. https://humanrights.wbcsd.org/project/blueprint-for-embedding-human-rights-in-key-company-functions/

GlobalG.A.P. Risk Assessment on Social Practice (GRASP): GRASP is an add-on module for GLOBALG.A.P. developed to assess social practices on the farm, addressing specific aspects of workers’ health, safety and welfare, and labor rights. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/grasp/

IS0 26000 Social Responsibility: ISO 2600 is not a certification tool, but it offers guidance about social responsibility to all sorts of organizations regardless of their activity, size or location. https://www.iso.org/iso-26000-social-responsibility.html

International Labour Organization Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: This declaration outlines the universal rights of all workers regardless of citizenship status, gender, or the local level of economic development. http://www.ilo.org/declaration/lang--en/index.htm

International Labour Organization defines Gender Equality/Discrimination: Every worker has the right to be treated fairly and to have access to equal opportunities regardless of their gender, sexual orientation, age, marital status, and religious and political beliefs. In addition, each worker should be free to decide where to work, and when to terminate the working relationship. To facilitate equality, it is important that a variety of workers are actively involved in decision making. This can be stimulated through workers organizations, unions, workers surveys, hotlines, and employers organizations. http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/dw4sd/themes/gender-equality/lang--en/index.htm

Priority Ingredients - Animal Feed: Priority ingredients for the Animal Feed Key Performance Indicators include but are not limited to:_x000D_
- animals: rendered animal protein, oils, and fats from the slaughter of food production animals and other animals._x000D_
- forage: alfalfa meal and hay, grass hay, corn plant, and soybean hay._x000D_
- grains: barley, corn, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat._x000D_
- oils and fats from plants: palm, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, rapeseeds._x000D_
- plant protein products: canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean feed and meal._x000D_
- processed grain by-products: distillers grains products, brewers dried grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, and wheat bran.

Social Accountability International Guidance Document for Social Accountability 8000: According to Social Accountability International, "this guidance document provides various tools and information for users of the Social Accountability 8000 standard, including definitions, background information, and examples." https://sa-intl.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/SA8000-2014-Guidance-Document.pdf

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: This website is the homepage of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples can be found here. https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/declaration-on-the-rights-of-indigenous-peoples.html

United Nations Global Compact Human Rights and Business Dilemmas Forum: United Nations Global Compact Human Rights and Business Dilemmas Forum present an introduction to, analysis of, and business recommendations for minimizing social sustainability risks in the supply chain. https://www.unglobalcompact.org/library/9

United Nations Global Compact Self-Assessment Tool on Human Rights: This tool can be used by organizations to assess human rights performance against international standards, conventions and agreements. It also provides suggestions for continuous improvement. https://globalcompactselfassessment.org/humanrights

United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights: The website presents the universal rights that all human beings possess, regardless of any distinct characteristic. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html
Collective bargaining: According to the ILO this is a key means through which employers and their organizations and trade unions can establish fair wages and working conditions and ensure equal opportunities between women and men.

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.

Discrimination: Discrimination is defined under ILO Convention No. 111 as any distinction, exclusion or preference made on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin (among other characteristics), "which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity and treatment in employment or occupation".

First party audit: A first party audit is conducted by the organization itself for management review and other internal purposes and may form the basis for an organization’s declaration of conformity.

First party systematic risk assessment: A first party systematic risk assessment is conducted by the organization itself for management review and other internal purposes and may form the basis for an organization’s declaration of conformity.

Forced labor: Any task or service performed by a person against their will or under threat of negative consequence. Forced labor includes debt bondage, human trafficking, withholding of wages or identity papers, threats of violence, unreasonable restriction of movement, and exploitation of marginalized workers.

Freedom of association: The right of workers to join or form trade union or other worker organizations of their choosing/or refrain from doing so/and could bargain collectively without fear of retaliation or repercussion as long as it not contrary to local law.

Freedom of collective bargaining: The right to negotiate the conditions of employment as a group rather than individually without fear of repercussions.

Internationally-recognized labor principles: Internationally-recognized labor principles include the United Nations Global Compact and International Labour Organization Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work or equivalent.

Labor rights: The universal rights of workers, regardless of race, gender, nationality, or other distinguishing characteristic. These include protection from the worst forms of child labor, forced labor, and discrimination, as well as freedom of association and collective bargaining as outlined by the United Nations Global Compact or the International Labour Organization Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.

Risk assessment: A systematic process to evaluate potential risks within an operation, system, or supply chain. It can include an on-site audit by a second party or third party or a country risk classification analysis that judges the site risk due to prevailing conditions, controls, or other mitigating factors.

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Staff responsible for procurement activities: All both full-time and contracted employees responsible for attaining raw materials, parts, components, products and services at a facility that are being evaluated via KPIs on labor rights improvements in the supply chain.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.

Worst forms of child labor: Labor that negatively affects a child's health, safety, morals, or reasonable ability to receive an education. This includes forced labor, prostitution or pornography, labor for illicit activities, and hazardous work. Hazardous work activities include work that is abusive, work underground, underwater, at dangerous heights or in confined spaces, work with dangerous machinery and tools, work with heavy loads, work involving hazardous substances and environments, work for long hours, work at night, or work in which the worker is unreasonably restricted from movement outside the premises.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedPackaging Raw Material SourcingThe scope of this question is the product category’s sales packaging, which is defined as packaging that leaves a store with the consumer. Include the transportation-related packaging for product that is shipped directly to an end consumer.
Calculate C1 as the mass of post-consumer recycled material in the sales packaging of your final products, divided by the total mass of sales packaging used for your final products, then multiply by 100. This excludes pre-consumer recycled materials.
Calculate C2 as the mass of sustainably-sourced renewable virgin material in the sales packaging of your final products, divided by the total mass of sales packaging used for your final products, then multiply by 100. To be included in C2, the material must be third-party verified (e.g. for paper-based packaging FSC, SFI, PEFC would be examples of certifications for verification).
If data on packaging materials specific to these final products is not available, you may use more aggregated internal data to calculate C1 and C2 (e.g., company-level data for sales packaging of similar products).
The sum of C1 and C2 cannot be greater than 100%.
Please refer to THESIS KPI set for Packaging for more detailed packaging indicators.
Global Protocol on Packaging Sustainability: According to this document's introduction, "The Global Protocol on Packaging Sustainability was created to provide the consumer goods and packaging industries with a much needed common language with which to discuss and assess the relative sustainability of packaging.  That common language consists of a framework and a measurement system. This report provide a standardized set of response approaches to the range of business questions that may arise concerning packaging sustainability." https://www.theconsumergoodsforum.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/CGF-Global-Protocol-on-Packaging.pdf

ISO 18604: ISO 18604 (Packaging and the environment -- Material recycling) provides measurement standards for determining how recyclable a particular product is. https://www.iso.org/standard/55872.html

THESIS Calculation Tool - Packaging KPIs: TSC has created THESIS KPI Calculation Tools to help suppliers in answering specific Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for THESIS. Each tool includes step by step instructions on how to use the tool to generate your KPI response. https://sustainabilityconsortium.org/download/packaging-calculation-tool-2023/

THESIS Help Center Video: Packaging Raw Material Sourcing KPI: Short video tutorial on the Packaging Raw Material Sourcing KPI. Use case-sensitive password 'thesis' when prompted. https://vimeo.com/531017161
Circulytics - Measuring circularity: The Ellen Macarthur Foundation's Circulytics assesses a company’s overall circularity. The tool is designed to support a company’s evolution to a circular economy by informing strategy development and decision making, and identifying opportunities to align with circular economy principles including: designing out waste, keeping materials and products in use, and generating environmental benefits. https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/resources/apply/circulytics-measuring-circularity

FTC Green Guide's Recyclability Definition: In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission defines when a product or packaging can be claimed recyclable. Please refer these guidelines when determining recyclability. https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/press-releases/ftc-issues-revised-green-guides/greenguides.pdf

Global Protocol on Packaging Sustainability 2.0: The Global Protocol for Packaging Sustainability (GPPS 2.0) is a common set of indicators and metrics for business regarding sustainable packaging. The Consumer Goods Forum condensed the "Sustainable Packaging Indicators and Metrics Framework", developed by GreenBlue's Sustainable Packaging Coalition, into GPPS 2.0. https://www.theconsumergoodsforum.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/CGF-Global-Protocol-on-Packaging.pdf

How2Recycle Certification: The How2Recycle Label provides guidance to consumers on how to recycle packaging for consumable goods. The label is intended to be used on all types of packaging and to provide instruction regarding how and where various raw materials can be recycled. http://www.how2recycle.info/
Post-consumer recycled material: "Material generated by households or by commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities in their role as end?users of the product that can no longer be used for its intended purpose. This includes returns of materials from the distribution chain.” (ISO 14021:2016 - Environmental labels and declarations — Self-declared environmental claims (Type II environmental labelling))

Pre-consumer recycled material: “Material diverted from the waste stream during the manufacturing process. Excluded is reutilization of materials such as rework, regrind or scrap generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it.” (ISO 14021:2016 - Environmental labels and declarations — Self-declared environmental claims (Type II environmental labelling))

Renewable material: “Material that is composed of biomass from a living source and that can be continually replenished. To be defined as renewable, virgin materials shall come from sources which are replenished at a rate equal to or greater than the rate of depletion.” (FTC Green Guides:2012)

Sales packaging: "Packaging that leaves a store with the consumer". (Global Protocol on Packaging Sustainability 2.0:2011)

Sustainably-sourced material: Material for which it can be demonstrated through second- or third-party verification that the virgin raw material has been harvested or produced legally and in a way that minimizes damage to the environment, workers, and communities. Materials such as paper can be included in this definition if the source of the packaging content comes from sustainably-managed forests with no deforestation.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedPalm Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, and Derivative Ingredient SourcingYour palm oil supply includes all palm oil, palm kernel oil, and their chemically-derived ingredients purchased or produced for inclusion in your final products. "Chemically-derived ingredients" refers to any material that originated from a chemical reaction that included palm oil or palm kernel oil as a raw material. Examples of ingredients that may be derived from palm oil or palm kernel oil include, but are not limited to, bakery fats derived from palm oil, and yeasts that contain a palm oil derivative such as calcium lactylates E482.
Calculate C1 as the mass of your certified palm oil ingredient supply that was purchased through RSPO book and claim (e.g., GreenPalm), divided by the total mass of your palm oil ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C2 as the mass of your certified palm oil ingredient supply that was purchased through RSPO mass balance, divided by the total mass of your palm oil ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C3 as the mass of your certified palm oil ingredient supply that was purchased through RSPO segregated, divided by the total mass of your palm oil ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C4 as the mass of your certified palm oil ingredient supply that was purchased through RSPO identity preserved, divided by the total mass of your palm oil ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform this calculation using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
GreenPalm - Certified Sustainable Palm Oil: The GreenPalm trading program allows companies to support RSPO growers and suppliers by allowing them to purchase book and claim certificates of RSPO to offset their use of palm and palm kernel oil. http://greenpalm.org/

RSPO - The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil - RSPO NEXT: The components of RSPO NEXT fall into the following categories: no deforestation, no fire, no planting on peat, reduction of GHGs, respect for human rights, and transparency and are applicable at an organization-wide level, including investments, joint ventures, and in the organization’s wider supply base. https://www.rspo.org/certification

RSPO supply chain models Book and Claim, Mass Balance, Segregated, and Identity Preserved: The palm oil and palm oil-derived ingredients may go through many production and logistical stages between plantations and the end product. Any individual batch of palm oil and palm oil-derived ingredients can be traded through one of four supply chain models that are approved by RSPO - Book and Claim, Mass Balance, Segregated, and Identity Preserved. https://rspo.org/certification/supply-chains
Palm Oil Innovation Group Charter (2019): The Palm Oil Innovation Group (POIG) Charter supports the group's goals to support innovation and improvements in palm oil plantation management, create value for those using the practices outlined, and be a platform for communication for plantation managers and governments. http://poig.org/the-poig-charter/

Palm Oil Innovation Group Verification Indicators (2019): Indicators that third-party auditors can use to verify compliance with the POIG Charter. http://poig.org/poig-verification-indicators/

Walmart Sustainability Hub Forest Conservation (Walmart 2021): This website offers resources and guidance to support supplier engagement for deforestation-risk commodities (i.e. beef, cocoa, palm oil, and soy) in the jurisdictional approach to encourage forest conservation in places at highest risk of deforestation. https://www.walmartsustainabilityhub.com/forest-conservation
N/A
Animal FeedAnimal FeedSustainable Packaging Design and ProductionCalculate C1 as the mass of sales packaging used for your final product that was recyclable, divided by the total mass of sales packaging used for your final product, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C2 as the mass of sales packaging used for your final product that has demonstrated progress on goals for material and process efficiency during packaging manufacturing, divided by the total mass of sales packaging used for your final product, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C3 as the mass of sales packaging used for your final product that has demonstrated progress on goals for weight or volume optimization during packaging design, divided by the total mass of sales packaging used for your final product, then multiply by 100.
Goals must be quantitative and time-bound and progress must be reported publicly. Public reporting may include voluntary corporate reporting, sustainability reporting programs, or reporting as part of regulatory compliance.
Calculate C4 as the mass of sales packaging used for your final product that has demonstrated quantified environmental impact reductions, divided by the total mass sales packaging used for your final product, then multiply by 100. Include sales packaging with demonstrated impact reductions since the inception of the product or since purchase of the brand, if post-inception.
Methods for demonstrating quantified environmental impact reduction include, but are not limited to, life cycle impact assessment, or assessment against ISO Standard 18602:2013 (Packaging and the environment -- Optimization of the packaging system), or EN 13428:2004 (Packaging: Requirements specific to manufacturing and composition - Prevention by source reduction).
Calculate C5 as the number of units sold in the US and Canada that had sales packaging labeled with How2Recycle divided by the total number of units sold in the US and Canada that had sales packaging, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C6 as the number of units sold in regions outside the US and Canada that had sales packaging labeled according to an established third-party standard divided by the total number of units sold in regions outside the US and Canada that had sales packaging, then multiply by 100. Third party standards include those listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools section of this KPI. Only include regions outside the US and Canada that are covered by the referenced third-party standards in your calculations.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Australasian Recycling Label (ARL): Used in Australia and New Zealand, the ARL details how best to label packaging for recycling to assist consumers in recycling correctly. https://recyclingnearyou.com.au/arl/

EN 13428: Prevention by packaging source reduction: European standard 13428:2004 outlines a method for evaluating if packaging material weight and/or volume have been sufficiently minimized while also taking into consideration other packaging performance parameters. The standard also includes recommended methodology for identifying heavy metals and dangerous substances in packaging formats. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/european-standards/harmonised-standards/packaging/index_en.htm

Ecoembes Recycling Symbols: Used in Spain, the Ecoembes recycling symbols provide information to consumers for the recycling of packaging up to six different colors: blue for paper and cardboard, yellow for plastics and cans, green for glass, orange for organic materials, red for hazardous waste, and grey for everything else. https://www.ecoembes.com/en/home

European Certification of Plastics Recycling (EUCertPlast): The EuCertPlast Certification is a European wide certification program for companies that recycle post-consumer plastic waste. https://www.eucertplast.eu/

How2Recycle Certification: The How2Recycle Label provides guidance to consumers on how to recycle packaging for consumable goods. The label is intended to be used on all types of packaging and to provide instruction regarding how and where various raw materials can be recycled. http://www.how2recycle.info/

ISO 18602: ISO 18602 provides criteria for optimization of packaging systems. It outlines a procedure for reduction of packaging material weight or volume while taking into consideration packaging function. It also provides assessment methodology for substances hazardous to the environment and heavy metals. https://www.iso.org/standard/55870.html

Japanese Recycling Symbols: Used in Japan, Japanese recycling symbols tell in a glance to consumers what is recyclable and what is not recyclable, and assist consumers in recycling correctly. https://www.jcpra.or.jp/Portals/0/resource/eng/JCPRAdocuments202012.pdf

Le Guide du TRI (Citeo Sorting Guide): sed in France, the Citeo Sorting Guide provides information to companies about which product components should be recycled and which should be disposed. https://bo.citeo.com/sites/default/files/2019-07/20190617_Guide_Info-tri_Citeo_EN.pdf

On-Pack Recycling Label: Used in the UK, the On-Pack Recycling Label details how best to label packaging for recycling to assist consumers in recycling correctly. http://www.oprl.org.uk/

The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers (APR): The APR is an international national trade association representing the plastics recycling industry. https://plasticsrecycling.org/about

The Triman: Used in France, the Triman is a recycling symbol in e-commerce that sells and ships to France. https://www.msl.io/uploads/downloads/Triman-Users-handbook-english-V21.pdf

Woolworths Recycling Labels: Used in South Africa, the Woolworths Recycling Labels detail how best to label packaging for recycling to assist consumers in recycling correctly. https://www.woolworths.co.za/content/howto/good-business-journey/how-to-read-our-recycling-labels/_/A-cmp201960
Circulytics - Measuring circularity: The Ellen Macarthur Foundation's Circulytics assesses a company’s overall circularity. The tool is designed to support a company’s evolution to a circular economy by informing strategy development and decision making, and identifying opportunities to align with circular economy principles including: designing out waste, keeping materials and products in use, and generating environmental benefits. https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/resources/apply/circulytics-measuring-circularity

FTC Green Guide's Recyclability Definition: In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission defines when a product or packaging can be claimed recyclable. Please refer these guidelines when determining recyclability. https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/press-releases/ftc-issues-revised-green-guides/greenguides.pdf

Walmart Sustainable Packaging Playbook: Walmart provides an overview of sustainable packaging best practices for suppliers interested in improving and innovating packaging. https://www.walmartsustainabilityhub.com/climate/project-gigaton/packaging
Goals: Goals should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound.

Material and process efficiency: Material efficiency is the ratio between the material input and the benefits derived. Resource conservation (source reduction) of material inputs and/or improving the functionality of the packaging can positively impact material efficiency. Process efficiency is the ratio between the time spent on production steps to the output. Opportunities to improve material and process efficiency include process improvement, product redesign, and technology changes to packaging equipment. It should be noted that continual source reduction has benefits, but there are trade-offs that must be assessed.

Sales packaging: "Packaging that leaves a store with the consumer". (Global Protocol on Packaging Sustainability 2.0:2011)

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Weight or volume optimization: "Process for the achievement of a minimum adequate weight or volume (source reduction) for meeting the necessary requirements of primary or secondary or transport packaging, when performance and user/consumer acceptability remain unchanged or adequate, thereby reducing the impact on the environment.” (ISO 18601:2013 - Packaging and the environment--General requirements for the use of ISO standards in the field of packaging and the environment)
Animal FeedAnimal FeedTransportation to RetailersInclude shipments of your product from final manufacturing facilities to downstream retailers or distributors. Include both company-owned and contracted fleet. Exclude data for return trips. If retailers are responsible for the transportation of some or all of your final product, the retailer may hold the information necessary to calculate your response. It may be made available in a public report or by request.
Calculate B1 as the mass of product transported by carriers that reported emissions, divided by total mass of product transported, then multiply by 100.
Reporting can occur through public disclosure or private disclosure from the supplier to your organization directly or through another party.
Perform this calculation using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
If a supplier completed the CDP Climate Change 2020 Questionnaire, you may count that as compliance with this question. Examples of other compliant standards are provided in the Certifications, Standards, & Tools section below.
CDP Climate Change Questionnaire: The CDP Climate Change Questionnaire provides questions that assess a company's greenhouse gas emissions, goals, and management. The report provided by CDP provides the overview of the results from companies responding to the request. https://www.cdp.net/en/guidance/guidance-for-companies

Clean Shipping Index: According to their website, "Clean Shipping Index is a tool for cargo owners to select clean ships and quality ship operators" to minimize environmental footprint and identify areas for environmental improvement. https://www.cleanshippingindex.com/

Clear Cargo: The Clean Cargo Working group is a business initiative created by BSR to collaboratively address the environmental impacts of shipping and transportation. https://www.clean-cargo.org/data-methods

EN 16258: The European Committee for Standardization's EN 16258 standard deals with the methodology for calculation and reporting of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of freight and passenger transport services. https://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000030241098

Ecotransit: EcotransIT World calculates and quantifies environmental impacts of different carriers across the world in terms of direct energy usage and emissions during the operation of vehicles during the transport of products. http://www.ecotransit.org/

IATA CO2 Emissions Measurement Methodology: This document includes a methodology for measuring CO2 emissions from air cargo. https://www.iata.org/en/programs/cargo/sustainability/carbon-footprint/

THESIS Help Center Video: Transportation to Retailers KPI: Short video tutorial on the Transportation to Retailers KPI. Use case-sensitive password 'thesis' when prompted. https://vimeo.com/529545735

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Transportation and Air Quality: SmartWay: This program provides information about how to improve fuel efficiency in trucking. Carriers can use the SmartWays carbon emission calculator to track and publicly report emissions associated with their trucking operations. https://www.epa.gov/smartway
Greenhouse Gas Protocol: Calculation Tools: This site provides a list of sector toolsets developed by GHG Protocol, third-party databases, and other tools based on the GHG Protocol standards that can be used to calculate greenhouse gas inventories for use in emissions calculations. https://ghgprotocol.org/calculation-toolsCO2e: Carbon dioxide equivalent; a metric that expresses the impact of a greenhouse gas in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has the same global warming potential.

Greenhouse gas: Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedWorker Health and Safety - ManufacturingThis question aligns with the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Injury and Illness rate. This rate can be normalized for global applicability.
Calculate B1 by multiplying the number of recordable injuries and illnesses by 200,000. Divide this number by the total employee hours worked to produce your final product. Include all employees at a facility that participate in the production of the final product. This includes both full-time and contracted employees. If multiple facilities manufacture the final product, the injury and illness rate will need to be adjusted using a weighted average based on each facility's percentage of total production.
THESIS General Guidance document also provides instruction for calculating the weighted average. See Background Information for more information. THESIS Worker Health and Safety KPI Calculation Tool can also assist with your illness and injury rate calculations, including weighted averages. Additional resources include the Incidence Rate Calculator and Comparison Tool (an online calculator that will compute your injury and illness rate) and OSHA Forms for Recording Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your final product for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your final product, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Incidence Rate Calculator and Comparison Tool: This tool calculates the injury and illness incidence rate for employers. https://data.bls.gov/iirc/

OSHA Forms for Recording Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses: This webpage contains information on how to record workplace injuries and illnesses and provides the worksheets needed to correctly do so. https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/forms

THESIS Help Center Video: Worker Health and Safety - Manufacturing KPI: Short video tutorial on the Worker Health and Safety - Manufacturing KPI. Use case-sensitive password 'thesis' when prompted. https://vimeo.com/520108472
How to Compute a Firm's Incidence Rate for Safety Management: This website from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics provides in-depth guidance on computing injury and illness numbers. https://www.bls.gov/iif/osheval.htm

SA8000® Standard: Social Accountability International (SAI) is a global non-governmental organization that aims to advance human rights at work via the SA8000® Standard. SA 8000 measures social performance in eight areas that are relevant for workplaces in factories and organizations worldwide. https://sa-intl.org/programs/sa8000/

TSC General Guidance for Key Performance Indicators: The General Guidance Document for Key Performance Indicators (KPI) provides essential guidance to complement the specific guidance provided for each KPI. TSC recommends reading this document before you begin your first questionnaire and revisiting it as often as necessary for clarification and additional information. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/general-guidance-document/
Company-owned or contract manufacturing facilities: Facilities responsible for manufacturing and assembly of final products, whether these facilities are internal or external to the respondent’s organization.

Worker exposure to harmful elements: Contact with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological elements that occurs as a result of one's job-related activities. Examples include chronic interaction with chemicals, dusts, radiation, environmental elements, allergens, noise, and vibrations.

Worker health and safety: Worker health and safety consists of worker injury and worker exposure to harmful elements. Please see the corresponding terms.

Worker injury: Physical damage to an individual due to a single act that causes immediate damage or repetitive acts that cause damage over time. Examples of causes of injury include repetitive motions, non-ergonomic motions, damage from use of tools and machinery, falls, and burns.
Animal FeedAnimal FeedWorker Health and Safety - Priority Ingredient SourcingPriority ingredients are those ingredients that are estimated to have the greatest environmental and social impacts in the product category, based on their relative mass in the category or on the contribution to key issues. Priority ingredients are listed in Background Information below.
To be included in B1-B5, risk assessments, training programs, safety plans, performance monitoring systems, and audits must be verifiable and address health and safety issues such as worker injury and worker exposure to harmful elements. The assessments and audits must be conducted by second or third parties. The risk assessment must be conducted once per year while the audit must have been conducted at least once every three years, both using a standard based on internationally-recognized principles such as International Labour Organization Occupational Safety and Health Conventions (e.g., No. 155). The standards and websites listed in Background Information below may be helpful for conducting your risk assessment(s) and for understanding appropriate corrective actions, which can inform your responses. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples of initiatives that meet these requirements.
Calculate B1 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that came from operations that have performed a risk assessment to identify high risk areas for health and safety, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100.
To determine if an operation is high risk for health and safety, you may utilize a country risk analysis tool. The tool should measure the strength of a country's ability to govern and enforce laws, regulations, and internationally recognized principles. The country risk assessment may be a first party systematic review assessment, or external risk analyses tools may be utilized. It must be conducted at least once per year. The country risk assessment can be complemented with risks associated with specific activities, regions, and suppliers.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that came from operations that train workers on health and safety procedures, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the training on health and safety procedures must be available in the language of the employee, including migratory and seasonal workers, and must be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices for workers on health and safety procedures and to prevent training exhaustion. Additional worker training may be required to perform job duties. On-site audits, where necessary, should be conducted by second or third parties and must be conducted at least once every three years using a standard based on internationally-recognized principles.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that came from operations that implement a verifiable worker health and safety plan, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, a worker health and safety plan must be verifiable and must be available in the language of the employee, including migratory and seasonal workers, and be prominently displayed in the workplace where employees normally report. The plan should include best practices specific to ergonomics; repetitive motions; chemical and particulate exposure; appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE); and proper use of tools, machinery, and the handling of animals (if applicable). On-site audits, where necessary, should be conducted by second or third parties and must be conducted at least once every three years using a standard based on internationally-recognized principles.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that came from operations that have a worker health and safety performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B4, a worker health and safety performance monitoring system should include metrics on issues including, but not limited to, incidence of worker injuries and prevalence of diseases. On-site audits, where necessary, should be conducted by second or third parties and must be conducted at least once every three years using a standard based on internationally-recognized principles.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your priority ingredient supply that came from operations that were audited in the last three years on worker health and safety issues, divided by the total mass of your priority ingredient supply, then multiply by 100. Audits should be conducted by second or third parties at least once every three years, or more often depending on the requirements of the standard organization. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information. Government regulations or parties in the supply chain may initiate these audits.
To be included in B5, the audits must be verifiable and address preventive measures, freely provided personal protective equipment, identification of worker health and safety hazards and effects on the exposed people, statistics and reasons behind injuries, design of work area, processes, installations, machinery/work equipment, operating processes and work organization, as outlined by internationally-recognized labor principles. Examples include, but are not limited to, principles outlined by the United Nations Global Compact, the International Labour Organization Standards on Occupational Health and Safety.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question. Audits must have been conducted in the 36 months prior to the end of the 12-month period.
Amfori Country Risk Classification: This list classifies countries' risk of social injustice in an effort to assist companies in determining high and low risk for their sourcing and operations. http://duediligence.amfori.org/CountryRiskClassification

Fairtrade International Certification: Fairtrade International provides several standards (e.g. for smallholders and workers), and a certification through FLOCERT. Fairtrade aims to improve the livelihoods of smallholders and workers amongst others via fair trade relationships. https://www.fairtrade.net/about/certification

GlobalG.A.P. Risk Assessment on Social Practice (GRASP): GRASP is an add-on module for GLOBALG.A.P. developed to assess social practices on the farm, addressing specific aspects of workers’ health, safety and welfare, and labor rights. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/grasp/

Rainforest Alliance Sustainable Agriculture Standard: Rainforest Alliance has two certifications: farm and chain of custody. The standard encompasses all three pillars of sustainability—social, economic, and environmental. RA is currently developing a new certification program, following their 2018 merger with UTZ. Since 2018 RA has also become the sole owner and operator of the 2017 SAN Standard. https://www.rainforest-alliance.org/business/solutions/certification/agriculture/

Recommended Practices for Safety and Health Programs: Defines and enforces standards for the safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women. OHSA also provides training, outreach education, and assistance. The OSHA tools can be used for self-evaluations, to compare elements and actions of different health and safety standards, to track implemented actions, identify remaining weaknesses, and strategies for continued improvement. https://www.osha.gov/shpguidelines/explore-tools.html

SA8000® Standard: Social Accountability International (SAI) is a global non-governmental organization that aims to advance human rights at work via the SA8000® Standard. SA 8000 measures social performance in eight areas that are relevant for workplaces in factories and organizations worldwide. https://sa-intl.org/programs/sa8000/

Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit: Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit is an auditing system that aligns with Ethical Trading Initiative's Base Code as well International Labour Organization Conventions. It has been developed to provide a public auditing methodology and format for companies to use to assess compliance. https://www.sedex.com/our-services/smeta-audit/

Sustainable Outcomes in Agriculture (SOA) Standard: Sustainable Outcomes in Agriculture (SOA) is a standard developed by Syngenta Sustainable Solutions for measuring continuous improvement towards sustainable outcomes on farms. It provides a framework to help agricultural supply chain companies and crop producers improve outcomes in regenerative agriculture. https://assets.syngentaebiz.com/pdf/media/sustainable-outcomes-standard-v1.2.pdf
IS0 26000 Social Responsibility: ISO 2600 is not a certification tool, but it offers guidance about social responsibility to all sorts of organizations regardless of their activity, size or location. https://www.iso.org/iso-26000-social-responsibility.html

Priority Ingredients - Animal Feed: Priority ingredients for the Animal Feed Key Performance Indicators include but are not limited to:_x000D_
- animals: rendered animal protein, oils, and fats from the slaughter of food production animals and other animals._x000D_
- forage: alfalfa meal and hay, grass hay, corn plant, and soybean hay._x000D_
- grains: barley, corn, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat._x000D_
- oils and fats from plants: palm, palm kernel oil, cottonseed, rapeseeds._x000D_
- plant protein products: canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean feed and meal._x000D_
- processed grain by-products: distillers grains products, brewers dried grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, and wheat bran.

Social Accountability International Guidance Document for Social Accountability 8000: According to Social Accountability International, "this guidance document provides various tools and information for users of the Social Accountability 8000 standard, including definitions, background information, and examples." https://sa-intl.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/SA8000-2014-Guidance-Document.pdf

United Nations Global Compact Human Rights and Business Dilemmas Forum: United Nations Global Compact Human Rights and Business Dilemmas Forum present an introduction to, analysis of, and business recommendations for minimizing social sustainability risks in the supply chain. https://www.unglobalcompact.org/library/9
Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.

First party systematic risk assessment: A first party systematic risk assessment is conducted by the organization itself for management review and other internal purposes and may form the basis for an organization’s declaration of conformity.

Risk assessment: A systematic process to evaluate potential risks within an operation, system, or supply chain. It can include an on-site audit by a second party or third party or a country risk classification analysis that judges the site risk due to prevailing conditions, controls, or other mitigating factors.

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.

Worker exposure to harmful elements: Contact with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological elements that occurs as a result of one's job-related activities. Examples include chronic interaction with chemicals, dusts, radiation, environmental elements, allergens, noise, and vibrations.

Worker health and safety: Worker health and safety consists of worker injury and worker exposure to harmful elements. Please see the corresponding terms.

Worker injury: Physical damage to an individual due to a single act that causes immediate damage or repetitive acts that cause damage over time. Examples of causes of injury include repetitive motions, non-ergonomic motions, damage from use of tools and machinery, falls, and burns.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Health Management – Beef Finishing FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms with a verified veterinary-client-patient relationship, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a veterinary-client-patient relationship must meet the criteria of the American Veterinary Medical Association or the European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more details.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms with designated individual(s) in place to evaluate animal health and welfare, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. A designated individual must have the skills to evaluate animal health and welfare and be verifiably trained and experienced in managing beef cattle health and welfare. Evaluation of animal health and welfare includes herd activity and behavior, prevalence of diseases, injury detection, and availability of water and feed. An example is animal caretakers having a signed cow care agreement.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms with an animal health performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. Animal health monitoring systems should include monitoring the prevalence of disease and incidence of injuries and evaluation of data for information that can be integrated into management and communication with animal care teams (including veterinarians). An animal health performance monitoring system includes metrics on production performance, incidence of common injuries, and prevalence of diseases. See the Background Information for factsheets that include a list of common diseases and injuries in beef cattle.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals: The European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals is a multi-stakeholder platform linking best practice with animal health and public health and aims to promote the responsible use of medicines in animals in the European Union. https://www.epruma.eu/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Calf and Young Beef: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CYB/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Cattle Disease Factsheets Australia: Inventory of most common cattle health and diseases in Australia. https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/animals-and-livestock/beef-cattle/health-and-disease

Cattle Disease Factsheets USA: Inventory of 140 diseases in dairy and beef cattle. The factsheets contain information on causes, treatment and prevention. http://www.thecattlesite.com/diseaseinfo/

Cattle Disease Prevention and Cattle Health Protection: Guidance on the main diseases that affect cattle, disease prevention, and legal controls in place to protect cattle health in the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/cattle-health#cattle-diseases

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Federation of Veterinarians of Europe - Herd Health Plan: The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe provides a policy paper that outlines objectives and benefits of a Herd Health Plan (HHP) for farms. A HHP aims to enhance animal health and welfare and quality of products by decreasing the use of veterinary medicinal products and feed additives and properly planning preventative healthcare. This paper also provides guidelines for the prevention of epizootics and zoonotic diseases and information about good husbandry practices. https://www.fve.org/publications/herd-health-plan/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.

Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR): A cooperative relationship between a veterinarian, a client and the patient. A VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians and their clients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. Veterinarians and their clients may choose to establish a VCPR, and to decide on veterinary medical care under the terms of the VCPR. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the VCPR in the US, which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Beef Cattle Farming StagesCalculate B1 as the mass of your beef supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at non-finishing farm stages, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your beef supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at non-finishing farm stages, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your beef supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the finishing farm stage, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your beef supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the finishing farm stage, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Non-finishing farm stages include cow-calf operations, stocker/backgrounder operations, and dairy operations.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in your response, as described by OIE, efforts should be taken to achieve minimization of pain, risk of injury, and transmission of diseases or parasites to animals; a physical environment in which the air quality, temperature, and humidity supports good animal health; a structural and social environment that allows animal to rest comfortably, provides opportunities for physical and cognitive activity, and allows for the opportunity to perform beneficial innate and positive behaviors.
Beef cattle should have access to sufficient water and appropriate feed and need to be free from hunger and thirst. Calves should be weaned only when their ruminant digestive system has developed sufficiently to enable them to maintain growth and welfare. The handling of animals should foster a positive relationship between humans and beef cattle and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress.
Genetic selection should take into account the health and welfare of beef cattle.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Calf and Young Beef: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CYB/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO): Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO) is an animal auditing and certification organization in the United States. PAACO promotes the humane treatment of animals through education and certification of animal auditors as well as the review and/or certification of animal audit instruments, assessments, and programs. https://animalauditor.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Beef Cattle Transport and SlaughterCalculate B1 as the mass of your beef supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second or third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your beef supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your beef supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second or third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your beef supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 or B2, as described by OIE, beef cattle should not be transported if they are not fit to travel. For those animals fit to travel, the number of journeys and the length of time should be minimized. Loading and unloading procedures should minimize animal stress, prevent injury, and use facilities that promote calm and safe animal movement. Protection from extreme temperatures and other extreme weather conditions is provided. Adequate feed and water is available when required.
To be included in B3 or B4, as described by OIE, beef cattle should be treated humanely before and during all slaughter procedures, including pre-slaughter stunning for non-ritual slaughter. The pre-slaughter stunning must render the animal insensible to pain until death occurs. The minimization of fear, stress, and pain is included in humane treatment.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) The Master Cattle Transporter program: This BQA program provides guidelines on transportation of beef cattle. https://www.bqa.org/media/bqa/docs/master_cattle_transporter_guide-digital.pdf

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Calf and Young Beef: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CYB/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO): Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO) is an animal auditing and certification organization in the United States. PAACO promotes the humane treatment of animals through education and certification of animal auditors as well as the review and/or certification of animal audit instruments, assessments, and programs. https://animalauditor.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare PolicyRespond with the option that most closely reflects your company's animal welfare policy.
For B, your company must publicly disclose a policy statement that contains a broad commitment to farm animal welfare. The policy must include no tolerance for abuse and a commitment to internationally recognized farm animal welfare principles, for example the OIE principles.
For C, in addition to B, your company must publicly disclose how your commitment to farm animal welfare is implemented and the policy must include the following: A clear statement on why animal welfare is important for your company, a commitment to comply with relevant legislation, a statement on expected farm animal welfare standards, a commitment to continuous improvement and public disclosure of animal welfare performance, and a description of the processes to ensure the effective implementation of your policy, for example senior management oversight, performance monitoring, or corrective actions.
This question aligns with the Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare, listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. Other standards or tools may also be applicable.
BBFAW Methodology Report: The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) Methodology Report 2015 provides an independent assessment of how 90 of the world’s largest food companies are managing and reporting on farm animal welfare and assesses the progress that has been made. BBFAW is designed to improve corporate reporting on farm animal welfare and drive tangible improvements in the farm animal welfare practices and performance. https://www.bbfaw.com/benchmark/World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleAssessment at Slaughter - Beef CattleCalculate B1 as the average non-ambulatory cattle rate per delivery, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each delivery. For each delivery, calculate the non-ambulatory cattle rate as the number of non-ambulatory cattle that arrived at the slaughter facility, divided by the number of cattle that were transported, then multiply by 100. Non-ambulatory cattle are cattle that are not able to stand up and walk. Reasons for cattle becoming non-ambulatory include, but is not limited to: fractures, neurological diseases, metabolic diseases, and mastitis.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of dark, firm, and dry meat per delivery at the slaughter facility, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each delivery. For each delivery at the slaughter facility, calculate the percentage of dark, firm, and dry meat as the mass of dark, firm, and dry meat, divided by the total mass of meat, then multiply by 100.
If primary data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the finishing farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of beef supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of beef supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimate for B1 or B3, then report 0% for B2 or B4 respectively.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/
Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) The Master Cattle Transporter program: This BQA program provides guidelines on transportation of beef cattle. https://www.bqa.org/media/bqa/docs/master_cattle_transporter_guide-digital.pdf

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

EU Regulation on Animal Welfare during transport: Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:f83007

Factsheet on Dark Cutters: The National Cattlemen’s Beef Association provides a factsheet on dark, firm and dry beef. https://fyi.extension.wisc.edu/wbic/files/2011/04/Dark-Firm-and-Dry-Beef.pdf

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8

Paper on Culling the Beef Cow Herd: A peer-reviewed paper titled: Culling the Beef Cow Herd. https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA-3092.pdf
Dark, firm, and dry meat: Dark, firm, and dry meat is often referred to as dark cutting beef. This condition is a result of an animal’s depleted muscle glycogen reserves prior to slaughter, which can be attributed to pre-slaughter stress like transport exhaustion, fear, or hunger.

Non-ambulatory cattle: An animal that cannot stand on its own. Cattle may become non-ambulatory due to trauma such as metabolic, traumatic, infectious, degenerative, and toxic disorders.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleCulling Management - Beef Cattle FinishingCalculate B1 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms that have a standard operating procedure for culling, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a standard operating procedure for culling should be aligned with the culling guidelines from the Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Program in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies, and the euthanasia guidelines from American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AAPB) in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. The BQA guidelines include not marketing animals that have a terminal condition, pose a public health threat, are emaciated, or have advanced eye lesions. The AABP guidelines include considerations for the selection of a method of euthanasia, mechanisms of euthanasia, determination of unconsciousness, and conformation of death. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms that track the reasons for culling, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the method and reasons for culling must be tracked. Examples of a reasons for culling are lameness, being a downer, mastitis, fertility problems, or a combination.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) The Master Cattle Transporter program: This BQA program provides guidelines on transportation of beef cattle. https://www.bqa.org/media/bqa/docs/master_cattle_transporter_guide-digital.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Calf and Young Beef: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CYB/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdf

National Dairy FARM Top 11 Considerations for Culling and Transporting Dairy Animals: The FARM program provides the top 11 considerations for culling and transporting dairy animals to a packing or processing facility designed to assist dairy producers in making the decision on the suitability for an animal to be transported. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/dairy-cull-poster.pdf

Practical Euthanasia of Cattle: The American Association of Bovine Practitioners provide guidelines on cattle euthanasia. https://www.aabp.org/Resources/AABP_Guidelines/EUTHANASIA-2019.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Paper on Culling the Beef Cow Herd: A peer-reviewed paper titled: Culling the Beef Cow Herd. https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA-3092.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Downer: A downer is a non-ambulatory animal that cannot stand on its own. The most likely reason for cattle to go down is a trauma, for example: metabolic, traumatic, infectious, degenerative, and toxic disorders.

Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.

Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleHousing System Specifications - Beef Cattle FinishingInsights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of beef cattle at finishing farms in your supply chain are housed in a system that allows cattle to easily stand up, lie down, turn around, and adopt normal resting postures with visual eye contact with other cattle, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of cattle that are allowed to easily stand up, lie down, turn around, and adopt normal resting postures with visual eye contact with other cattle, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the stocking density must be managed such that weight gain and duration of time spent lying is not adversely affected by crowding.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of beef cattle at finishing farms in your supply chain are housed in a system that gives cattle access to a lying area that provide comfort, insulation, warmth, dryness, and traction, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of cattle that are given access to a lying area that provide comfort, insulation, warmth, dryness, and traction, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of beef cattle at finishing farms in your supply chain are housed in a system that provides cattle protection from heat and cold, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of cattle that are provided protection from heat and cold, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100. Tools to provide protection include providing shade, fans, sprinklers, and windbreakers.
Calculate B4 as the average percentage of beef cattle at finishing farms in your supply chain are housed in a system that provides cattle with environmental enrichment, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each dairy farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of beef cattle that are provided with environmental enrichment, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100. Examples of environmental enrichment include scratching posts, cow brushes, or other equipment for grooming.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf
Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleLameness - Beef Cattle FinishingCalculate B1 as the average percentage of beef cattle at finishing farms in your supply chain that showed an adequate mobility score, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the percentage of beef cattle that showed an adequate mobility score as the number of beef cattle with an adequate mobility score, divided by the number of beef cattle scored, then multiply by 100.
To be included in B1, the mobility score must be equivalent to a mobility score of 1 or 2 based on the American Meat Institute scoring method in the United States. A mobility score of 1 indicates normal walking behavior, a score of 2 indicates some signs of lameness, but the animal keeps up with other cattle. Globally, multiple mobility, lameness, or locomotion scoring systems are applied. The essence of all these scoring systems is that an animal's lameness injury is monitored. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples of mobility scoring cards from around the world.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the animal farm operations are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of beef supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1, then report 0% for B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Cattle lameness grading systems: Lameness scoring systems can be used assess the severity of cattle lameness and are helpful for classifying lameness and monitoring responses to treatment. https://www.zinpro.com/lameness/beef

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Lameness in Dairy and Beef Herds: Provides guidance for lameness at both the herd and individual level. http://www.aabp.org/resources/aabp_guidelines/lamenessguidelines-03-11-2014.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Adequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.

Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleMortality Rate – Beef Cattle FinishingMortality rate is an indirect measure of animal welfare. It adds value to the interpretation of other key performance indicators concerning culling management, animal welfare certification and audits, housing systems, and animal health management.
Calculate B1 as the average mortality rate of beef cattle at the finishing farms in your supply chain, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the mortality rate as the number of deceased cattle, divided by the annual total number of beef cattle present, then multiply by 100. Mortality is defined as the uncontrolled death of finishing cattle as well as cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the finishing farm. Culling (i.e., selling cattle to a slaughterhouse, auction place, or another farm, and stillborn cattle) is not considered in this metric.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the beef finishing farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of beef supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1, then report 0% for B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Calf and Young Beef: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CYB/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Bovine Medicine: Book on cattle practice, management and professional skills, clinical skills, and herd health. https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Bovine+Medicine%2C+3rd+Edition-p-9781444336436

Paper on assessing finishing beef cattle mortality: A peer-reviewed paper titled: Assessment of finishing beef cattle mortality in a sustainable farming perspective. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1871141315003017

Paper on beef cattle welfare in the USA: A peer-reviewed paper titled: Beef cattle welfare in the USA: identification of priorities for future research. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466252315000171
Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.

Mortality: The uncontrolled death of animals and cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the farm.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleNutrition Management - Beef Cattle FinishingCalculate B1 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms that assess the nutritional status of beef cattle based on a body condition scoring system, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. See the Background Information for references to body condition scoring systems applicable to beef cattle.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms that consult a nutritionist for advice on ration formulation and feeding programs, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. A nutritionist is a person with expertise on the field of beef cattle welfare and nutrition. Examples of nutritionists include private consultants, universities, and feed company employees.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms that monitor changes in feces, incidence of acidosis and bloat, and foot health to evaluate the feeding program, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle
Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows: A peer-reviewed article discussing using a Body Condition Scoring system as an important managerial tool for assessing production efficiency for beef cows. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/400/400-795/400-795.html

Body Condition Scoring Instructions: Canadian Beef Cattle Research Council provides an instruction guide for Body Condition Scoring for beef cows. http://www.beefresearch.ca/research/body-condition-scoring.cfm

Body Condition Scoring Your Beef Cow Herd: A peer-reviewed article discussing body condition scores, relative to fatness or body condition of a cow herd. https://beef.unl.edu/learning/condition1a.shtml

Bovine Medicine: Book on cattle practice, management and professional skills, clinical skills, and herd health. https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Bovine+Medicine%2C+3rd+Edition-p-9781444336436

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Report discussing the nutrient requirements of beef cattle with tables which list the nutrient requirements of beef cattle. http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-1921/E-974web.pdf

Nutrition and the Welfare of Farm Animals: Book on the nutrition and welfare of farm animals. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-27356-3_8

Paper on Acidosis in Cattle: A peer-reviewed paper on acidosis in cattle. http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/1998.761275x

Paper on beef cattle welfare in the USA: A peer-reviewed paper titled: Beef cattle welfare in the USA: identification of priorities for future research. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466252315000171

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Acidosis: Ruminal acidosis is a metabolic disease of cattle in which the ruminal pH-level decreases leading to a decrease in ruminal activity and the animal becoming atonic. The change in acidity effects the ruminal flora and causes acid-producing bacteria to become more active, making the acidosis worse. Acute acidosis often results in death, although illness and liver abscesses may be seen beforehand.

Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Bloat: An increase of ruminal gases during the ruminal fermentation process. Bloat occurs when a loss of gas is prevented.

Body condition score: Values the animal's body condition taking into account the perspective of the breed, age, and lactation stage. An emaciated or skin body condition decreases the animal's welfare.

Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.

Nutritional requirement: The daily dietary need of carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, proteins, vitamins, and water for animal species at all stages of life and production.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleOutdoor Access Transparency - Beef Cattle FinishingThis question addresses transparency in production systems that are used in your supply chain. Insights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
In B2 to B5, include finishing farms that provided the respective form of outdoor access when climatic conditions allowed.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of beef cattle at the finishing farms in your supply chain that were housed in a system that does not provide cattle outdoor access, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of beef cattle that are not provided outdoor access, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of beef cattle at the finishing farms in your supply chain that were housed in a system that provides cattle outdoor access in pastures, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of beef cattle that are provided outdoor access primarily in pastures, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of beef cattle at the finishing farms in your supply chain that were housed in a system that provides cattle outdoor access in concrete alleyways or pens, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of beef cattle that are provided outdoor access primarily in concrete alleyways or pens, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the average percentage of beef cattle at the finishing farms in your supply chain that were housed in a system that provides cattle outdoor access in dry lots, weighted by the mass of beef supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of beef cattle that are provided outdoor access primarily in dry lots, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B5 as the average percentage of beef cattle at the finishing farms in your supply chain that were housed in a system that provides cattle other forms of outdoor access, weighted by the beef mass of supplied by each finishing farm. For each finishing farm, calculate the number of beef cattle that are provided outdoor access primarily in other forms, divided by the total number of beef cattle, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1 through B5 must be mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf
Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattlePainful Procedures Management - Beef CattleCalculate B1 as the mass of your beef supply that came from cattle that was not tail docked, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your beef supply that came from cattle that was not branded, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. In B2, you may include branded cattle that were raised in jurisdictions where branding is a legal requirement. Branding of cattle includes hot-iron branding and freeze branding.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your beef supply that came from cattle that were not disbudded and dehorned, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the environmental design or the use of polled breeds should allow the avoidance of disbudding and dehorning.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your beef supply that came from beef farms that have a standard operating procedure for disbudding and dehorning, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B4, the standard operating procedure for disbudding and dehorning must meet the criteria set by the Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) program in the United States or equivalent in other geographies. These criteria include disbudding or dehorning calves as early as possible, no later than the age of 120 days, and in a humane matter. In addition to the BQA criteria on dehorning, disbudding or dehorning must be performed using pain mitigation in accordance with the recommendation of a veterinarian. Include any supply that came from cattle that were not disbudded and dehorned in response options B3 and B4.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your beef supply that came from beef farms that have a standard operating procedure for castration, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B5, the standard operating procedure for castration must meet the criteria set by the Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) program in the United States or equivalent in other geographies. These criteria include castrating bull calves as early as possible, no later than the age of three months, and in a humane way. In addition to the BQA criteria on castration, castration must be performed using pain mitigation in accordance with the recommendation of a veterinarian. The castration method used should take into account the animal's age and weight, skill level of the operator, environmental conditions, facilities available, and human and animal safety.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

National Dairy FARM Program Animal Care Reference Manual: The FARM Program is a nationwide, verifiable animal well-being program in the United States that provides consistency and uniformity to best practices in animal care. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Version-3-Manual-1.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle
AVMA Castration and Dehorning of Cattle: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) asserts that castration and dehorning of cattle are important for human and animal safety. The AVMA recommends the use of procedures and practices that reduce or eliminate the painful effects of these procedures. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/avma-policies/castration-and-dehorning-cattle

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Welfare Implications of Castration of Cattle: Peer-reviewed literature review on the Welfare Implications of Castration of Cattle prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-castration-cattle

Welfare Implications of Hot-Iron Branding and Its Alternatives: Peer-reviewed summary about Welfare Implications of Hot-Iron Branding and Its Alternatives prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-hot-iron-branding-and-its-alternatives

Welfare Implications of Tail Docking of Cattle: Peer-reviewed literature review on the Welfare Implications of Tail Docking of Cattle prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-tail-docking-cattle

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Dehorning: Removal of the horns after they have formed from the horn bud.

Disbudding: Removal of the horn-producing cells (corium) of the horn bud.

Polled breed: A breed that naturally does not have horns through selective breeding.

Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattlePre-Slaughter Stunning Transparency - Beef CattleCalculate C1 as the mass of your beef supply that came from cattle that were effectively stunned with a captive bolt, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C2 as the mass of your beef supply that came from cattle that were effectively electrically stunned, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C3 as the mass of your beef supply that came from cattle that were effectively stunned by methods other than included in C1 and C2, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for C1 through C3 are mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
N/ACaptive-Bolt Stunning of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Association in the United Kingdom provides guidance on captive-bolt stunning of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/publications/captive-bolt-stunning-of-livestock-updated-logo-2016.pdf

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Electrical Stunning of Red Meat Animals: An article explaining the theory, practice, and use of electricity to stun and kill animals. It provides essential technical information to abattoir supervisors, veterinary surgeons, meat hygiene inspectors, and maintenance engineers. It can assist management in the selection of equipment and provide operators with background information to help them carry out their job competently and safely. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/publications/electricalstunningdownload-updated-2016-logo.pdf

FAO: Guidelines for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock: Document describing basic principles for humane handling, transport, and slaughter of livestock. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6909e/x6909e00.htm#Contents

Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: The American Meat Institute provides a guide on recommended practices including transportation audit guidelines and stunning guidelines. http://animalhandling.org/producers/guidelines_audits
Stunning: Stunning is the process of rendering the animal unconscious prior to slaughter.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleStockperson Training - Beef CattleCalculate B1 as the mass of your beef supply that came from finishing farms that have documentation that those who are in contact with beef cattle are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your beef supply that came from transporters that have documentation that those who are in contact with beef cattle are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your beef supply that came from slaughter facilities that have documentation that those who are in contact with beef cattle are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100.
The training program and accompanying documentation must include, but not be limited to facility requirements, humane animal handling, animal behavior, and injury and disease detection. Examples of implementation of these criteria by all stockpersons are understanding the physical and environmental requirements for cattle, understanding stress factors such as other cattle, personnel, strange noises, sights, sounds, and smells, recognizing common diseases, illnesses, and injuries, and recognizing normal cattle activity and behavior. Additional training may be required for monitoring individual cow health, proper equipment use, newborn calf management, or for outside workers such as transporters and foot trimmers. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples of initiatives that meet these requirements.
Initial training is necessary to perform job duties. Training must be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices (not necessarily on an annual basis) and to prevent training exhaustion. See the Background Information for further reading on the relation between stockperson training and animal welfare.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Beef & Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme (BLQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Beef and Lamb Quality Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-beef-and-lamb-assurance-scheme-sblas/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) The Master Cattle Transporter program: This BQA program provides guidelines on transportation of beef cattle. https://www.bqa.org/media/bqa/docs/master_cattle_transporter_guide-digital.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Calf and Young Beef: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CYB/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/

Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO): Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO) is an animal auditing and certification organization in the United States. PAACO promotes the humane treatment of animals through education and certification of animal auditors as well as the review and/or certification of animal audit instruments, assessments, and programs. https://animalauditor.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Beef Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of beef cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/beefcattle
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8

Stockperson Training and Animal Welfare: This Revue Scientifique et Technique provides a paper titled: Training to improve stockperson beliefs and behavior towards livestock enhances welfare and productivity. https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D13660.PDF

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Finishing stage: The final stage of livestock production where full-feeding and final conditioning of an animal for slaughter takes place in order to ensure satisfactory muscle and fat revenues. This excludes breeding, cow-calf, and stocker farms.

Stockperson: A professional manager of animals. A stockperson's attitude and behavior effects animal welfare and productivity.
Animal Welfare - Beef CattleAnimal Welfare - Beef CattleTransportation to Slaughter - Beef CattleCalculate B1 as the number of your suppliers that publicly disclose a transportation plan that specifies how animal welfare is covered during transportation to slaughter, divided by the total number of your suppliers, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the transportation plan must meet the guidelines provided by the Beef Quality Assurance Master Cattle Program in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. These guidelines include handling, training, transport conditions, record keeping, and equipment. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
Calculate B3 as the average dead-on-arrival rate per delivery at the slaughter facility, weighted by the mass beef supplied by each delivery at the slaughter facility. For each delivery, calculate the dead-on-arrival rate as the number of deceased cattle during transport, divided by the number of cattle that were transported, then multiply by 100.
If primary data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the finishing farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of beef supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your beef supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimate for B1 or B3, then report 0% for B2 or B4 respectively.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual: The Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) Manual outlines science-based best management practices that provide a framework for cow-calf and stocker producers to ensure food safety and quality. The BQA program is a cooperative effort between beef producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, extension staff, and other professionals from veterinary medical associations and allied industries of farm animals. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf

Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) The Master Cattle Transporter program: This BQA program provides guidelines on transportation of beef cattle. https://www.bqa.org/media/bqa/docs/master_cattle_transporter_guide-digital.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

EU Regulation on Animal Welfare during transport: Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:f83007

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Calf and Young Beef: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CYB/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Cattle and Sheep: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the beef supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/CS/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of beef cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/beef_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Beef Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of beef cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/RevisedAnimalWelfareGuidelineforBeefFarmers2008.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8

Paper on Culling the Beef Cow Herd: A peer-reviewed paper titled: Culling the Beef Cow Herd. https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA-3092.pdf
Dead-on-arrival: Dead-on-arrival (DOA) or brought-in-dead (BID), is a term that indicates an animal is clinically dead upon the moment of arrival.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Health Management – Broiler FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms with a verified veterinary-client-patient relationship, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a veterinary-client-patient relationship must meet the criteria of the American Veterinary Medical Association or the European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. See Certifications, Standards & Tools for more details.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms with designated individual(s) in place to evaluate animal health and welfare, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. A designated individual must have the skills to evaluate animal health and welfare and be verifiably trained and experienced in managing broiler health and welfare. Evaluation of animal health and welfare includes flock activity and behavior, prevalence of diseases, injury detection, and availability of water and feed.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms with an animal health performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. Animal health monitoring systems should include monitoring the prevalence of disease and incidence of injuries and evaluation of data for information to integrate into management and communication with animal care teams (including veterinarians). An animal health performance monitoring system includes production performance, incidence of common injuries, and prevalence of diseases. See the Background Information for factsheets that include a list of common diseases and injuries in broiler chickens.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals: The European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals is a multi-stakeholder platform linking best practice with animal health and public health and aims to promote the responsible use of medicines in animals in the European Union. https://www.epruma.eu/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Federation of Veterinarians of Europe - Herd Health Plan: The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe provides a policy paper that outlines objectives and benefits of a Herd Health Plan (HHP) for farms. A HHP aims to enhance animal health and welfare and quality of products by decreasing the use of veterinary medicinal products and feed additives and properly planning preventative healthcare. This paper also provides guidelines for the prevention of epizootics and zoonotic diseases and information about good husbandry practices. https://www.fve.org/publications/herd-health-plan/

Poultry Disease Factsheets: Inventory of 140 diseases in poultry flocks. The factsheets contain information on signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. http://www.thepoultrysite.com/diseaseinfo/

Poultry Disease Prevention and Poultry Health: Health of poultry, bird-specific diseases and infections, and the responsibility to report suspected outbreaks in the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/poultry-health

Poultry Health and Disease Factsheets: Inventory of most common poultry health and diseases in Australia. https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/animals-and-livestock/poultry-and-birds/health-disease

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR): A cooperative relationship between a veterinarian, a client and the patient. A VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians and their clients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. Veterinarians and their clients may choose to establish a VCPR, and to decide on veterinary medical care under the terms of the VCPR. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the VCPR in the US, which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Broiler Breeder and Broiler Chicken FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the broiler farm stage, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the broiler farm stage, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 through B4, as described by OIE, efforts should be taken to achieve minimization of pain, risk of injury, and transmission of diseases or parasites to broiler chickens; a physical environment in which the air quality, temperature, and humidity supports good broiler chicken health; a structural and social environment that allows broiler chicken to rest comfortably, provides opportunities for physical and cognitive activity, and allows for the opportunity to perform beneficial innate and positive behaviors. Broiler chickens should have access to sufficient water and appropriate feed and be free from hunger and thirst. The handling of broilers should foster a positive relationship between humans and broiler chickens and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress.
Genetic selection should take into account the health and welfare of broiler chickens.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Broiler Transport and SlaughterCalculate B1 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 and B2, as described by OIE, broiler chickens should not be transported if they are not fit to travel. For those broiler chickens fit to travel, the number of journeys and the length of time should be minimized. Loading and unloading procedures should minimize broiler chicken stress, prevent injury, and use facilities that promote calm and safe broiler chicken movement. Protection from extreme temperatures and other extreme weather conditions is provided. Adequate feed and water is available when required.
To be included in B3 and B4, as described by OIE, broiler chickens should be treated humanely before and during all slaughter procedures, including pre-slaughter stunning for non-ritual slaughter. The pre-slaughter stunning must render the broiler chicken insensible to pain until death occurs. The minimization of fear, stress, and pain is included in humane treatment.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare PolicyRespond with the option that most closely reflects your company's animal welfare policy.
For B, your company must publicly disclose a policy statement that contains a broad commitment to farm animal welfare. The policy must include no tolerance for abuse and a commitment to internationally recognized farm animal welfare principles, for example the OIE principles.
For C, in addition to B, your company must publicly disclose how your commitment to farm animal welfare is implemented and the policy must include the following: A clear statement on why animal welfare is important for your company, a commitment to comply with relevant legislation, a statement on expected farm animal welfare standards, a commitment to continuous improvement and public disclosure of animal welfare performance, and a description of the processes to ensure the effective implementation of your policy, for example senior management oversight, performance monitoring, or corrective actions.
This question aligns with the Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare, listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. Other standards or tools may also be applicable.
BBFAW Methodology Report: The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) Methodology Report 2015 provides an independent assessment of how 90 of the world’s largest food companies are managing and reporting on farm animal welfare and assesses the progress that has been made. BBFAW is designed to improve corporate reporting on farm animal welfare and drive tangible improvements in the farm animal welfare practices and performance. https://www.bbfaw.com/benchmark/World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAssessment at Slaughter - Broiler ChickensCalculate B1 as the average percentage of broiler chickens with no or mild foot pad dermatitis at slaughter, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each delivery at the slaughter facility. For each delivery, calculate the percentage of broiler chickens with no or mild foot pad dermatitis as the number of broilers chickens with no or mild foot pad dermatitis, divided by the total number of broilers delivered, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the foot pad must not show lesions, or mild lesions as discoloration of the foot pad, superficial lesions, dark papillae and hyperkeratosis. Do not include broilers that have a food pad where the epidermis is affected, have ulcers or scabs, or show signs of hemorrhages or swollen foot pads. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for definitions on scoring footpad dermatitis.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of broiler chickens with no or mild hock lesions at slaughter, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each delivery at the slaughter facility. For each delivery, calculate the percentage of broiler chickens with no or mild hock lesions as the number of broilers chickens with no or mild hock lesions, divided by the total number of broilers delivered, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the hock must not show lesions, or less than 10% of the hock has a lesion. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for definitions on scoring footpad dermatitis.
If primary data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the broiler farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of chicken meat supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Factsheet on Foot Pad Dermatitis in Poultry: Animal Welfare Approved provides a factsheet on assessing footpad dermatitis. https://agreenerworld.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/TAFS-7-Foot-Pad-Dermatitis-in-Poultry-v2.pdf

Management Tools to Reduce Footpad Dermatitis in Broilers: This document gives broiler farms management tools to help reduce footpad dermatitis in broilers. http://en.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/Broiler_Breeder_Tech_Articles/English/AviaTech-FoodpadDermatitisSept2012.pdf

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Paper on chicken welfare and the relation with stocking density and housing conditions: Nature provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature02226

Paper on factors that affect the prevalence of foot pad dermatitis and hock burn: British Poultry Science provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Factors affecting the prevalence of foot pad dermatitis, hock burn and breast burn in broiler chicken. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17578688/

Prevalence and Factors of Influence of Footpad Dermatitis: This article gives an overview of prevalence and factors of influence of footpad dermatitis in Dutch broiler flocks. This information can be used to develop tools to reduce footpad dermatitis in commercial flocks. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22700500/
N/A
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensCulling Management - Broiler ChickensCalculate B1 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms that have a standard operating procedure for culling, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a standard operating procedure for culling must be aligned with the euthanasia guidelines from the National Chicken Council (NCC) in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. The NCC guidelines include, but are not limited to: proper handling around catching, flock inspection, euthanasia method, and feed and water withdrawal. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms that track the reasons for culling, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the method and reasons of culling must be tracked.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdf

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensDaily Weight Gain Potential Transparency - Broiler ChickensThe question addresses transparency for the daily weight gain potential of broiler chickens. Daily weight gain potential is an indirect measure of animal welfare. It adds value to the interpretation of other key performance indicators. The daily weight gain potential is based on the breed’s weight gain potential. For conversion purposes, 1 lb = 0.454 kg.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that had a daily weight gain potential lower than 45 grams per day, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that had a growth rate potential lower than 45 grams per day, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that had a daily weight gain potential that was equal to or between 45 and 49 grams per day, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that had a growth rate potential that was equal to or between 45 and 49 grams per day, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that had a daily weight gain potential that was equal to or between 50 and 54 grams per day, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that had a growth rate potential that was equal to or between 50 and 54 grams per day, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that had a daily weight gain potential that was equal to or between 55 and 59 grams per day, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that had a growth rate potential that was equal to or between 55 and 59 grams per day, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B5 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that had a daily weight gain potential equal to or higher than 60 grams per day, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that had a growth rate potential equal to or higher than 60 grams per day, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens
Paper on broiler breeding and relation to welfare: The Journal Animal Welfare provides a peer reviewed paper with the title: Breeding for better welfare: genetic goals for broiler chickens and their parents. http://users.ox.ac.uk/~snikwad/resources/GeneticsAW.pdf

Paper on chicken welfare and the relation with stocking density and housing conditions: Nature provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature02226

Paper on density allowances for broilers: Poultry Sciences provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Density allowances for broilers: where to set the limits? https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.6.1265

Scientific opinion on the influence of genetic parameters on the welfare of commercial broilers: The European Food and Safety Authority provides a scientific opinion on the influence of genetic parameters on the welfare and the resistance to stress of commercial broilers. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1666

Scientific opinion on welfare of broilers and broiler breeders: The European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) provides a scientific report that gives an update of the EFSA opinions on the welfare of broilers and broiler breeders. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2903/sp.efsa.2012.EN-295
N/A
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensHatching Management - Broiler ChickensCalculate B1 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms that use hatcheries with standard operating procedures for culling chicks, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the hatcheries’ standard operation procedure must cover the method of euthanasia, the skills of an employee and verification and documentation. To be included in B1, the method of euthanasia must be approved by the American Veterinary Medical Association in the United States, or its equivalent in other geographies. Rapid maceration or displacement of oxygen with nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, or other approved gas are preferred methods of cull chick and pipped egg euthanasia.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms that use hatcheries with standard operating procedures for spraying of newly-hatched chicks, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the hatcheries’ standard operation procedure must cover the type of disinfectant used, the skills of an employee and verification and documentation. Additionally, the chicks must either not be sprayed with disinfectant or sprayed with a disinfectant that is not toxic or irritant.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms that assess the broilers physical condition and have housing prepared at the time of delivery and placement, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the housing must be heated, cleaned, and water, feed, and bedding material must be available before the broiler chickens are received; farm personnel must be available to inspect the broiler chickens at the moment of arrival; problems must be documented and provided as feedback to the hatchery. Examples of assessment criteria are alertness, vigor, condition, and behavior.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms that that maintain an adequate temperature during unloading, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B4, recommended practices for the holding areas for boxes of chicks should be in a temperature range of 21-27 degrees Celsius (70-80 degrees Fahrenheit) and a relative humidity ranging from 40-60%.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms that handle broiler chickens carefully to minimize injuries and stress during unloading, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B5, broiler chickens, including the boxes with chicks, must not be dropped from heights that may cause injuries.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare
Pipped egg: An egg prior to hatching where the chick has started to find a way with its beak to the air cell within the egg shell.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensHousing System Specifications - Broiler ChickensInsights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that were provided daily access to clean and friable litter, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that were provided daily access to clean and friable litter, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the litter must meet the criteria set by initiatives listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. These criteria include, but are not limited to: the litter must be loosely compacted when squeezed in the hand; the litter must be permanently available and must be well-maintained, well-drained, dry and friable.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that were provided access to adequate light levels, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that were provided access to adequate light levels, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, an adequate light level must be arranged with a lighting program that meets with the criteria set by the standards listed in the Certifications Standards & Tools. These criteria include that all buildings must have sufficient light levels that allow broilers to see each other. The lighting system in houses must be designed and maintained to regulate a natural daily cycle for all hens to support a circadian rhythm, with transitional periods to mimic dust and dawn, uninterrupted period of darkness of four hours, and meet with applicable legislation. Lightings programs may need to be adjusted to account for differences in breeds, disease conditions and environmental changes. For natural light, light apertures must be arranged so that light is distributed evenly within the housing. The minimum light intensity level at daytime must be at least ten lux and meet with applicable legislation. For example, in Europe a minimum light intensity level of 20 lux and uninterrupted period of darkness of six hours is required by law.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that were provided outdoor access, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that were provided outdoor access, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the area should be designed and managed to ensure it is in good condition and protected against parasites, rodents or insects, provide substantial cover of living vegetation, drinking water, and must have a perimeter that extends no more than 400 yards (366 meters) from the broiler house or provide a mobile shelter that has a well-drained area and overhead cover.
Calculate B4 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that were provided daily access to roughage, scattered grains, or pecking blocks, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that were provided daily access to roughage, scattered grains, or pecking blocks, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B5 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that were provided access to elevated platforms, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the number of broiler chickens that were provided access to elevated platforms, divided by the total number of broiler chickens, then multiply by 100. Examples of elevated platforms are straw bales, or short perches.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

European Council Directive 2007/43/EC: Provides minimum rules for the protection of chicken kept for meat production. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A02007L0043-20191214

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Paper on chicken welfare and the relation with stocking density and housing conditions: Nature provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature02226

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Adequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensLameness - Broiler ChickensCalculate B1 as the average percentage of broiler chickens in your supply chain that showed an adequate gait score, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the percentage of broiler chickens that showed an adequate gait score as the number of broiler chickens with an adequate gait score, divided by the total number of broiler chicken scored, then multiply by 100.
Under the U.S. Gait Scoring System from the National Chicken Council in the United States, an adequate gait scores are 0 or 1. In other geographies, equivalent programs should be referenced. A gait score of 0 indicates normal walking behavior, a score of 1 indicates moderately lameness, where birds are able to walk 150 centimeters (5 feet). Globally, multiple mobility, lameness, or locomotion scoring systems are applied. The essence of all these scoring systems is that an animal's lameness injury is monitored. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples of gait scoring models.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the animal farm operations are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of chicken meat supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1, then report 0% for B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

How to Score Walking Ability in Broiler Chickens: Factsheet on Lameness and Lameness Scoring in Broiler Chickens. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Lameness-in-Poultry-%3A-Evaluating-Gait-Scores/44db07fab45703b6590036b0f2ffe06fff1ed201?p2df

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Preventing Lameness in Broiler Chickens: The EU Welfare Quality Program provides a factsheet on preventing lameness in broiler chickens. http://www.welfarequality.net/media/1119/wqr13.pdfAdequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensMortality Rate - Broiler ChickensMortality rate is an indirect measure of animal welfare. It adds value to the interpretation of other key performance indicators concerning culling management, daily growth rate potential, broiler housing, animal welfare certification and audits, housing systems, and animal health management.
Calculate B1 as the average mortality rate in the most recently completed flock cycle, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the mortality rate as the number of deceased broilers in the most recently completed flock cycle, divided by the total number of broilers that started in the most recently completed flock cycle, then multiply by 100. Mortality is defined as the uncontrolled death of a broiler as well as cases of euthanasia at the broiler farm.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the broiler farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of chicken meat supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported a regional estimate for B1, then report 0% for B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Mortality: The uncontrolled death of animals and cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the farm.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensPre-Slaughter Stunning Transparency – Broiler ChickensCalculate C1 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broilers that were effectively stunned with low atmospheric pressure, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C2 as the mass of your chicken meat supply came from broilers that were effectively stunned in an electric water bath, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C3 as the mass of your chicken meat supply came from broilers that were effectively stunned in a controlled atmosphere using carbon dioxide, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate C4 as the mass of your chicken meat supply came from broilers that were effectively stunned in a controlled atmosphere using a mixture of inert gases and carbon dioxide, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. Examples inert gases are argon, helium, nitrogen, and methane. Include your supply in C3, when you are unable to determine what the method of controlled atmosphere stunning has been used for stunning.
Calculate C5 as the mass of your chicken meat supply came from broilers that were effectively stunned prior to slaughter using other methods, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for C1 through C4 are mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdfAnimal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Behavioral responses of broiler chickens during low atmospheric pressure stunning: The journal Applied Animal Behaviour Science provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Behavioural responses of broiler chickens during low atmospheric pressure stunning. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0168159115003056

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Electrical Water Bath Stunning of Poultry: The Humane Slaughter Association in the United Kingdom provides guidance on electrical water bath stunning of poultry. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/hsagn7waterbathpoultryapril2016pdfoptimiser.pdf

FAO: Guidelines for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock: Document describing basic principles for humane handling, transport, and slaughter of livestock. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6909e/x6909e00.htm#Contents

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Position Statement on Stunning of Poultry: The American Association of Avian Pathologists (AAAP) and the American College of Poultry Veterinarians (ACPV) provide a position statement on stunning of poultry. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/2012AAAPStunningof-Poultry.pdf

Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: The American Meat Institute provides a guide on recommended practices including transportation audit guidelines and stunning guidelines. http://animalhandling.org/producers/guidelines_audits

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens

Scientific opinion on LAPS for Stunning Poultry: The European Food and Safety Authority panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides a peer reviewed paper on the use of a low atmosphere pressure system (LAPS) for stunning poultry. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/5056

Stunning Methods for Poultry: This review presents an overview of the modes of action and the technical aspects of poultry stunning methods including novel and emerging stunning technologies. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4693211/
Stunning: Stunning is the process of rendering the animal unconscious prior to slaughter.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensStocking Density Transparency - Broiler ChickensThis question addresses transparency in production systems that are used in your supply chain. Insights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Calculate B1 as the average stocking density at broiler farms in your supply chain, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each broiler farm. For each broiler farm, calculate the stocking density as the maximum mass of broiler live weight present in the last completed batch, divided by the total house area in square meters. Exclude feed- and drinking equipment and internal structural elements from the calculation of total house area. For conversion purposes, 1 lb = 0.454 kg, 1 square meter = 10.764 square foot. Multiply by 4.88 to convert a number expressed in pounds per square feet into kilograms per square meters.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the broiler farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of chicken meat supply you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1, then report 0% for B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

European Council Directive 2007/43/EC: Provides minimum rules for the protection of chicken kept for meat production. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A02007L0043-20191214

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Paper on chicken welfare and the relation with stocking density and housing conditions: Nature provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature02226

Paper on density allowances for broilers: Poultry Sciences provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Density allowances for broilers: where to set the limits? https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.6.1265

Scientific opinion on welfare of broilers and broiler breeders: The European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) provides a scientific report that gives an update of the EFSA opinions on the welfare of broilers and broiler breeders. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2903/sp.efsa.2012.EN-295

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
N/A
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensStockperson Training - Broiler ChickensCalculate B1 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from broiler farms that have documentation that those who are in contact with broilers are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from transporters that have documentation that those who are in contact with broilers are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your chicken meat supply that came from slaughter facilities that have documentation that those who are in contact with broilers are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100.
The training program and accompanying documentation must include, but not be limited to: facility requirements, humane animal handling, animal behavior, and injury and disease detection. Examples of implementation of these criteria by all stockpersons are understanding the physical and environmental requirements for a broiler chicken, understanding the relation between litter condition and welfare outcomes such as hock burn or footpad dermatitis, recognizing normal flock activity and broiler behavior. Additional training may need to be required for catching crews, transport crews, or euthanasia crews, and outside workers like vaccination crews, or depopulation crews. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples of initiatives that meet these requirements.
Initial training is necessary to perform job duties. Training must be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices (not necessarily on an annual basis) and to prevent training exhaustion. See the Background Information for further reading on the relation between stockperson training and animal welfare.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO): Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO) is an animal auditing and certification organization in the United States. PAACO promotes the humane treatment of animals through education and certification of animal auditors as well as the review and/or certification of animal audit instruments, assessments, and programs. https://animalauditor.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens

The Poultry Passport: The British Poultry Training Scheme developed the Poultry Passport, a secure and consistent online training recording system for poultry workers in the UK. Companies can view the Poultry Passports of all their employees. https://www.poultrypassport.org/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8

Stockperson Training and Animal Welfare: This Revue Scientifique et Technique provides a paper titled: Training to improve stockperson beliefs and behavior towards livestock enhances welfare and productivity. https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D13660.PDF

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Stockperson: A professional manager of animals. A stockperson's attitude and behavior effects animal welfare and productivity.
Animal Welfare - Broiler ChickensAnimal Welfare - Broiler ChickensTransportation to Slaughter – Broiler ChickensCalculate B1 as the number of your suppliers that publicly disclose a transportation plan that specifies how animal welfare is covered during transportation to slaughter, divided by the total number of your suppliers, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, your company should publicly disclose a transportation plan that specifies how animal welfare is covered during transportation to slaughter. The transportation plan must meet the guidelines provided by the National Chicken Council in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. These guidelines include, but are not limited to: handling, transport conditions, training, record keeping, and equipment. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
Calculate B3 as the average dead-on-arrival rate per delivery at the slaughter facility, weighted by the mass of chicken meat supplied by each delivery. For each delivery at the slaughter facility, calculate the dead-on-arrival rate as the number of deceased broilers during transport, divided by the number of broilers that were transported, then multiply by 100.
If primary data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the broiler farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of chicken meat supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your chicken meat supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimate for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

EU Regulation on Animal Welfare during transport: Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:f83007

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

National Chicken Council (NCC) Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist: The NCC provides Animal Welfare Guidelines and Audit Checklist for the animal welfare of broiler chickens. https://www.nationalchickencouncil.org/policy/animal-welfare/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Broiler Chickens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of broiler chickens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/chickens
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Broiler Chickens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of broiler chickens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/BroilerChickens.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Chickens and Breeding Chickens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat chickens and breeding chickens. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8
Dead-on-arrival: Dead-on-arrival (DOA) or brought-in-dead (BID), is a term that indicates an animal is clinically dead upon the moment of arrival.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Health Management – Dairy FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms with a verified veterinary-client-patient relationship, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a veterinary-client-patient relationship must meet criteria of the American Veterinary Medical Association or the European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. See Certifications, Standards & Tools for more details.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms with designated individual(s) in place to evaluate animal health and welfare, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. A designated individual must have the skills to evaluate animal health and welfare and be verifiably trained and experienced in managing dairy cattle health and welfare. Evaluation of animal health and welfare includes herd activity and behavior, prevalence of diseases, injury detection, and availability of water and feed. An example is that animal caretakers have a signed cow care agreement.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms with an animal health performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. Animal health monitoring systems should include monitoring the prevalence of disease and incidence of injuries and evaluation of data for information to integrate into management and communication with animal care teams (including veterinarians). An animal health performance monitoring system includes production performance, incidence of common injuries, and prevalence of diseases. See the Background Information for factsheets that include a list of common diseases and injuries in dairy cattle.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals: The European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals is a multi-stakeholder platform linking best practice with animal health and public health and aims to promote the responsible use of medicines in animals in the European Union. https://www.epruma.eu/

Federation of Veterinarians of Europe - Herd Health Plan: The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe provides a policy paper that outlines objectives and benefits of a Herd Health Plan (HHP) for farms. A HHP aims to enhance animal health and welfare and quality of products by decreasing the use of veterinary medicinal products and feed additives and properly planning preventative healthcare. This paper also provides guidelines for the prevention of epizootics and zoonotic diseases and information about good husbandry practices. https://www.fve.org/publications/herd-health-plan/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

National Dairy FARM Program Animal Care Reference Manual: The FARM Program is a nationwide, verifiable animal well-being program in the United States that provides consistency and uniformity to best practices in animal care. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Version-3-Manual-1.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

SAI Platform - Sustainable Performance Assessment (SAI-SPA): The SAI Platform provides fact sheets and guidelines for sustainable agriculture assessment including metrics. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/reports-publications/spa-guidelines-2-0/

Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme (SDAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-dairy-assurance-scheme-sdas/

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Cattle Disease Factsheets Australia: Inventory of most common cattle health and diseases in Australia. https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/animals-and-livestock/beef-cattle/health-and-disease

Cattle Disease Factsheets USA: Inventory of 140 diseases in dairy and beef cattle. The factsheets contain information on causes, treatment and prevention. http://www.thecattlesite.com/diseaseinfo/

Cattle Disease Prevention and Cattle Health Protection: Guidance on the main diseases that affect cattle, disease prevention, and legal controls in place to protect cattle health in the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/cattle-health#cattle-diseases

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Nutritional requirement: The daily dietary need of carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, proteins, vitamins, and water for animal species at all stages of life and production.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.

Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR): A cooperative relationship between a veterinarian, a client and the patient. A VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians and their clients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. Veterinarians and their clients may choose to establish a VCPR, and to decide on veterinary medical care under the terms of the VCPR. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the VCPR in the US, which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics.

Weaning: The transfer from a milk-based diet to an adult fibrous diet.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Dairy FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your milk supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the dairy farm, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your milk supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the dairy farm, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 or B2, as described by OIE, efforts should be taken to achieve minimization of pain, risk of injury, and transmission of diseases or parasites to dairy cattle; a physical environment in which the air quality, temperature, and humidity supports good dairy cattle health; a structural and social environment that allows dairy cattle to rest comfortably, provides opportunities for physical and cognitive activity, and allows for the opportunity to perform beneficial innate and positive behaviors. Dairy cattle should have access to sufficient water and appropriate feed and be free from hunger and thirst. The handling of dairy cattle should foster a positive relationship between humans and dairy cattle and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress.
Genetic selection should take into account the health and welfare of dairy cattle.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme (SDAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-dairy-assurance-scheme-sdas/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare PolicyRespond with the option that most closely reflects your company's animal welfare policy.
For B, your company must publicly disclose a policy statement that contains a broad commitment to farm animal welfare. The policy must include no tolerance for abuse and a commitment to internationally recognized farm animal welfare principles, for example the OIE principles.
For C, in addition to B, your company must publicly disclose how your commitment to farm animal welfare is implemented and the policy must include the following: A clear statement on why animal welfare is important for your company, a commitment to comply with relevant legislation, a statement on expected farm animal welfare standards, a commitment to continuous improvement and public disclosure of animal welfare performance, and a description of the processes to ensure the effective implementation of your policy, for example senior management oversight, performance monitoring, or corrective actions.
This question aligns with the Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare, listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. Other standards or tools may also be applicable.
BBFAW Methodology Report: The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) Methodology Report 2015 provides an independent assessment of how 90 of the world’s largest food companies are managing and reporting on farm animal welfare and assesses the progress that has been made. BBFAW is designed to improve corporate reporting on farm animal welfare and drive tangible improvements in the farm animal welfare practices and performance. https://www.bbfaw.com/benchmark/N/AAnimal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleBody Condition - Dairy CattleCalculate B1 as the average percentage of dairy cattle in your supply chain that showed an adequate body condition, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the percentage of dairy cattle that showed an adequate body condition as the number of dairy cattle with an adequate body condition, divided by the number of dairy cattle scored, then multiply by 100.
For the United States, the national FARM program provides, a 1-5 scale body condition scoring system for dairy cattle, where a body condition score from 2 or higher indicates an adequate body condition and should be included in B1. For Europe, the Welfare Quality protocol describes a 0-2 scale for body condition score and 4 body regions that need to be assessed. A body condition score of 0 or 1, should be included in B1. Globally, multiple body condition scoring systems are applied. The essence of all body condition scoring systems is that an animal is scored within the perspective of the breed, age and lactation stage. See the Certifications, Standards &Tools for reference to body condition scoring systems applicable to dairy cattle.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the animal farm operations are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass milk supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1, then report 0% for B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Factsheet on Body Condition Scoring of Dairy Cows in Australia: Dairy Australia provides a factsheet on Body Condition Scoring of Dairy Cattle. https://www.dairyaustralia.com.au/farm/animal-management/fertility/body-condition-scoring

Factsheet on Body Condition Scoring of Dairy Cows in Canada: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a factsheet on Body Condition Scoring of Dairy Cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/body-condition-scoring-dairy-cow

Factsheet on Body Condition Scoring of Dairy Cows in New Zealand: The DairyNZ in New Zealand provides a factsheet on Body Condition Scoring of Dairy Cattle. https://www.dairynz.co.nz/animal/body-condition-scoring/

Factsheet on Body Condition Scoring of Dairy Cows in the United Kingdom: The British Department for Environment, Food and Rural affairs provides a factsheet on Body Condition Scoring of Dairy Cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69371/pb6492-cattle-scoring-diary020130.pdf

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

SAI Platform - Sustainable Performance Assessment (SAI-SPA): The SAI Platform provides fact sheets and guidelines for sustainable agriculture assessment including metrics. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/reports-publications/spa-guidelines-2-0/

Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme (SDAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-dairy-assurance-scheme-sdas/

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf
Adequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.

Body condition score: Values the animal's body condition taking into account the perspective of the breed, age, and lactation stage. An emaciated or skin body condition decreases the animal's welfare.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleCulling Management - Dairy CattleCalculate B1 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have a standard operating procedure for culling, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a standard operating procedure for culling should be aligned with the culling guidelines set by the national FARM Program in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies, and the euthanasia guidelines from American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AAPB) in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. The FARM guidelines include not moving non-ambulatory animals, making a decision to treat, cull or euthanize animals promptly, not delaying transport of cattle that are dehydrated, or exhausted, the milking of lactating cows before transport, using a transportation company that provides cattle comfort and safety during transport, not transporting an animal within withdrawal times, with a poor body condition, or that require mechanical assistance to rise or is unable to walk. The AABP guidelines include considerations for the selection of a method of euthanasia, mechanisms of euthanasia, determination of unconsciousness, and conformation of death. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that track the reasons for culling, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the method and reasons of culling must be tracked. Examples of reasons are lameness, being a downer, mastitis, fertility problems, or a combination.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Dairy Animal Care and Quality Assurance (DACQA) Manual: Manual for animal care and quality assurance for dairy cows at the end of their productive lifetime. https://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/dairybqamanual.pdf

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdf

National Dairy FARM Top 11 Considerations for Culling and Transporting Dairy Animals: The FARM program provides the top 11 considerations for culling and transporting dairy animals to a packing or processing facility designed to assist dairy producers in making the decision on the suitability for an animal to be transported. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/dairy-cull-poster.pdf

Practical Euthanasia of Cattle: The American Association of Bovine Practitioners provide guidelines on cattle euthanasia. https://www.aabp.org/Resources/AABP_Guidelines/EUTHANASIA-2019.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme (SDAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-dairy-assurance-scheme-sdas/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf
Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleHousing System Specifications - Dairy CattleInsights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of dairy cattle in your supply chain is housed in a system that allows cattle to easily stand up, lie down, and adopt normal resting postures with visual eye contact with other cattle, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of cattle that are allowed to easily stand up, lie down, and adopt normal resting postures with visual eye contact with other cattle, divided by the total number of dairy cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of dairy cattle in your supply chain is housed in a system that gives cattle access to a lying area that provides comfort, insulation, warmth, dryness and traction, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of cattle that are given access to a lying area that provide comfort, insulation, warmth, dryness and traction, divided by the total number of dairy cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of dairy cattle in your supply chain is housed in a system that provides cattle with protection from heat and cold, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of cattle that are provided protection from heat and cold, divided by the total number of dairy cattle, then multiply by 100. Tools to provide protection include, but are not limited to: shade providence, fans, sprinklers and, windbreaks.
Calculate B4 as the average percentage of dairy cattle in your supply chain is housed in a system that provides cattle with environmental enrichment, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of cattle that are provided environmental enrichment, divided by the total number of dairy cattle, then multiply by 100. Examples of environmental enrichment include scratching posts, cow brushes or other equipment for grooming.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme (SDAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-dairy-assurance-scheme-sdas/
Book chapter on the impact of housing on dairy cattle welfare: The book Livestock Housing: Modern Management to Ensure Optimal Health and Welfare of Farm Animals provides a chapter with the title: A review of the impact of housing on dairy cow behavior, health and welfare. https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/10.3920/978-90-8686-771-4_02

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Effects of Farming Systems on Dairy Cow Welfare and Disease: Scientific report by the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare from the European Food and Safety Authority. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/rn-1143

Paper on housing and management factors and animal welfare: The Journal of Dairy Science provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Housing and management factors associated with indicators of dairy cattle welfare. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.11.016

Paper on the relation between building design and animal welfare: The journal Animal Welfare provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Relationships between building design, management system and dairy cow welfare. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ufaw/aw/2003/00000012/00000004/art00015
Environmental enrichment: Enrichment is a dynamic process for enhancing animal environments within the context of the animals' behavioral biology and natural history. Environmental changes are made with the goal of increasing the animals' behavioral choices and drawing out their species-appropriate behaviors.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleHousing Systems Transparency - Dairy CattleThis question addresses transparency in production systems that are used in your supply chain. Insights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Include the supply that came from dairy farms that applied a mix-system in the response option that most closely reflects the housing system used whenever dairy cows were kept indoor. Outdoor access is addressed with the KPI Outdoor Access Transparency.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of lactating dairy cattle in your supply chain that are housed in tied or stanchion stalls, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of lactating dairy cattle that are housed in tied or stanchion stalls, divided by the total number of lactating dairy cattle, then multiply by 100. A tied stall is a lying and standing place in which a single cow is tethered to a stanchion.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of lactating dairy cattle in your supply chain that are housed in free stalls, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of lactating dairy cattle that are housed in free stalls, divided by the total number of lactating dairy cattle, then multiply by 100. A free stall system permits dairy cows to move freely between resting and feeding areas. Examples of free stall systems are, but are not limited to: cubicle housing, or deep litter housing.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of lactating dairy cattle in your supply chain that are housed in open lot or pasture systems, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of lactating dairy cattle that are housed in open lot or pasture systems, divided by the total number of lactating dairy cattle, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1 through B3 must be mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
N/ABook chapter on the impact of housing on dairy cattle welfare: The book Livestock Housing: Modern Management to Ensure Optimal Health and Welfare of Farm Animals provides a chapter with the title: A review of the impact of housing on dairy cow behavior, health and welfare. https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/10.3920/978-90-8686-771-4_02

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Effects of Farming Systems on Dairy Cow Welfare and Disease: Scientific report by the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare from the European Food and Safety Authority. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/rn-1143

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

Paper on free stall design and hock lesions: The Journal of Dairy Science provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Hock lesions and free-stall design. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74931-9

Paper on housing and management factors and animal welfare: The Journal of Dairy Science provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Housing and management factors associated with indicators of dairy cattle welfare. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.11.016

Paper on the effect of free stalls on lameness prevalence: The Journal of Dairy Science provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Effect of free stall surface on daily activity patterns in dairy cows with relevance to lameness prevalence. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73422-0

Paper on the relation between building design and animal welfare: The journal Animal Welfare provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Relationships between building design, management system and dairy cow welfare. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ufaw/aw/2003/00000012/00000004/art00015
Free stall: A free stall permits cattle to move freely between the resting and feeding areas. Examples of free stall systems are cubicle and deep litter housing systems.

Lactating dairy cattle: Dairy cows that have calved and produce milk.

Stanchion stall: A stanchion or tied stall is a lying and standing place in which a single cow is tethered to a stanchion.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleLameness - Dairy CattleCalculate B1 as the average percentage of dairy cattle in your supply chain that showed an adequate mobility score, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the percentage of dairy cattle that showed an adequate mobility score as the number of lactating dairy cattle with an adequate mobility score, divided by the number of dairy cattle scored, then multiply by 100.
To be included in B1, the adequate mobility score must be equivalent to a locomotion score of 1 or 2 based on the Locomotion Score Card that is provided by the National Dairy FARM program in the United States. A mobility score of 1 indicates normal walking behavior, a score of 2 indicates moderately lameness. Globally, multiple mobility, lameness, or locomotion scoring systems are applied. The essence of all these scoring systems is that an animal's lameness injury is monitored. See the Standard, Certifications & Tools for examples of mobility scoring cards.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the animal farm operations are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of milk supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1, then report 0% for B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Cattle lameness grading systems: Lameness scoring systems can be used assess the severity of cattle lameness and are helpful for classifying lameness and monitoring responses to treatment. https://www.zinpro.com/lameness/beef

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

Lameness scoring in New Zealand: The information on this website describes lameness scoring in New Zealand and the importance of early detection of lameness. https://www.dairynz.co.nz/animal/cow-health/lameness/lameness-scoring/

Lameness scoring in UK: The information on this website describes lameness scoring in UK and the effectiveness of lameness treatments. http://dairy.ahdb.org.uk/technical-information/animal-health-welfare/lameness/husbandry-prevention/mobility-scoring/

Locomotion Scoring of Dairy Cattle: The information on this website describes lameness scoring in the US and instructions on how to do it. https://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/fapm/svm-dairy-apps/locomotion-scorer/

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

SAI Platform - Sustainable Performance Assessment (SAI-SPA): The SAI Platform provides fact sheets and guidelines for sustainable agriculture assessment including metrics. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/reports-publications/spa-guidelines-2-0/

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Lameness in Dairy and Beef Herds: Provides guidance for lameness at both the herd and individual level. http://www.aabp.org/resources/aabp_guidelines/lamenessguidelines-03-11-2014.pdf
Adequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleMortality Rate - Dairy CattleMortality rate is an indirect measure of animal welfare. It adds value to the interpretation of other key performance indicators concerning culling management, animal welfare certification and audits, housing systems, and animal health management.
Calculate B1 as the average stillborn and stillbirth rate at the dairy farms in your supply chain, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the stillborn and stillbirth rate as the number of calves that are born dead or that died within 48 hours after birth, divided by the total number of births, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the average dairy cow mortality rate at the dairy farms in your supply chain, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the mortality rate as the number of deceased cattle, divided by the total number of dairy cattle present, then multiply by 100. Mortality is defined as the uncontrolled death of dairy cows as well as cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the dairy farm. Culling (i.e., selling dairy cattle to a slaughterhouse, auction place, or another farm, and stillborn cattle) is not considered in B3.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the dairy farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of milk supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

SAI Platform - Sustainable Performance Assessment (SAI-SPA): The SAI Platform provides fact sheets and guidelines for sustainable agriculture assessment including metrics. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/reports-publications/spa-guidelines-2-0/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Dairy Cattle Management Practices in the United States: Report by the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System from the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/monitoring-and-surveillance/nahms/nahms_dairy_studies
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Mortality: The uncontrolled death of animals and cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the farm.

Stillborn: A calf that is dead at birth or dies within 48 hours after birth after at least 260 days of gestation.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleOutdoor Access Transparency - Dairy CattleThis question addresses transparency in production systems that are used in your supply chain. Insights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
In B2 to B5, include dairy farms that provided the respective form of outdoor access when climatic conditions allowed.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of lactating dairy cattle in your supply chain that are housed in a system that does not provide cattle with outdoor access, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of lactating dairy cattle that are not provided outdoor access, divided by the total number of lactating dairy cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of lactating dairy cattle in your supply chain that are housed in a system that provides cattle with primary outdoor access in pastures, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of lactating dairy cattle that are provided outdoor access in pastures, divided by the total number of lactating dairy cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of lactating dairy cattle in your supply chain that are housed in a system that provides cattle with primary outdoor access in concrete alleyways or pens, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of lactating dairy cattle that are provided outdoor access in concrete alleyways or pens, divided by the total number of lactating dairy cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the average percentage of lactating dairy cattle in your supply chain that are housed in a system that provides cattle with primary outdoor access in dry lots, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of lactating dairy cattle that are provided outdoor access in dry lots, divided by the total number of lactating dairy cattle, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B5 as the average percentage of lactating dairy cattle in your supply chain that are housed in a system that provides cattle with primary outdoor access in forms other than those included in B2 through B4, weighted by the mass of milk supplied by each dairy farm. For each dairy farm, calculate the number of lactating dairy cattle that are provided outdoor access in forms other than those included in B2 through B4, divided by the total number of lactating dairy cattle, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1 through B5 must be mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
N/AEffects of Farming Systems on Dairy Cow Welfare and Disease: Scientific report by the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare from the European Food and Safety Authority. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/rn-1143

Paper on providing shade at pastures: The Journal of Dairy Science provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: The effects of providing portable shade at pasture on dairy cow behavior and physiology. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8932

Paper on the relation between building design and animal welfare: The journal Animal Welfare provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Relationships between building design, management system and dairy cow welfare. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ufaw/aw/2003/00000012/00000004/art00015

Paper on the relation between dairy cow welfare and exercise in tie-stall housing: The Acta Veterinaria Scandinavia provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise. https://actavetscand.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1751-0147-55-43

Review paper of the prevalence and risk factors of hock lesions in dairy cows: The Veterinary Journal provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: A descriptive review of the prevalence and risk factors of hock lesions in dairy cows. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.07.004

Review paper on the Genetic considerations for pasture-based dairy systems: The Journal of Dairy Science provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Invited review: Genetic considerations for various pasture-based dairy systems. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-7925

Review paper on the welfare of dairy cows in continuously housed and pasture-based systems: The Animal Consortium provides a peer reviewed paper with the title: Review: welfare of dairy cows in continuously housed and pasture-based production systems. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731116001336
Lactating dairy cattle: Dairy cows that have calved and produce milk.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattlePainful Procedures Management – Dairy CattleCalculate B1 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that do not tail dock cattle, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the dairy farm should not have applied tail docking, unless medically necessary. Milk supply that came from dairy cattle that were tail docked prior to the date tail docking was phased out can be included in B1.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your milk supply from that came from dairy farms that do not brand cattle, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. In B2, you may include branded cattle that were raised in jurisdictions where branding is a legal requirement. Branding of cattle includes hot-iron branding and freeze branding. Milk supply that came from dairy cattle that were branded prior to the date branding was phased out can be included in B2.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your milk supply from that came from dairy farms that do not disbud and dehorn cattle, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the environmental design or the use of polled breeds should allow the avoidance of disbudding and dehorning.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have a standard operating procedure for disbudding and dehorning, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B4, the standard operating procedure for disbudding and dehorning must meet with the criteria set by the national FARM program in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. These criteria include that calves are disbudded or dehorned at the age of eight weeks or earlier and performed using pain mitigation in accordance with the recommendation of a veterinarian. Include any supply that came from cattle that were not disbudded and dehorned in response options B3 and B4.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have a standard operating procedure for extra teat removal, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B5, the standard operating procedure on extra teat removal must meet with the criteria set by the national FARM program in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. These criteria include that extra teat removal is performed at the earliest age possible and performed using pain mitigation in accordance with the recommendation of a veterinarian.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme (SDAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-dairy-assurance-scheme-sdas/
AVMA Castration and Dehorning of Cattle: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) asserts that castration and dehorning of cattle are important for human and animal safety. The AVMA recommends the use of procedures and practices that reduce or eliminate the painful effects of these procedures. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/avma-policies/castration-and-dehorning-cattle

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Welfare Implications of Hot-Iron Branding and Its Alternatives: Peer-reviewed summary about Welfare Implications of Hot-Iron Branding and Its Alternatives prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-hot-iron-branding-and-its-alternatives

Welfare Implications of Tail Docking of Cattle: Peer-reviewed literature review on the Welfare Implications of Tail Docking of Cattle prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-tail-docking-cattle
Dehorning: Removal of the horns after they have formed from the horn bud.

Disbudding: Removal of the horn-producing cells (corium) of the horn bud.

Polled breed: A breed that naturally does not have horns through selective breeding.

Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleSomatic Cell Count - Dairy CattleCalculate B1 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have an average somatic cell count that is higher than 400,000 cells per milliliter, divided by the total mass of milk supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have an average somatic cell count between 200,000 and 400,000 cells per milliliter, divided by the total mass of milk supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have an average somatic cell count that is lower than 200,000 cells per milliliter, divided by the total mass of milk supply, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1 through B3 must be mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

SAI Platform - Sustainable Performance Assessment (SAI-SPA): The SAI Platform provides fact sheets and guidelines for sustainable agriculture assessment including metrics. https://saiplatform.org/our-work/reports-publications/spa-guidelines-2-0/

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
AHDB Dairy Mastitis Control Plan: The Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (AHDB) Dairy Mastitis Control Plan is a proven, structured, evidence-based, nationwide UK approach to mastitis prevention and control in dairy cattle. https://www.mastitiscontrolplan.co.uk/

Mastitis in Cattle: The Merck Veterinary Manual provides an article on clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence and prevention. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/reproductive-system/mastitis-in-large-animals/mastitis-in-cattle

Veterinary Research: Paper on housing and management factors and animal welfare: Veterinary Research provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Monitoring udder health and milk quality using somatic cell counts. http://www.vetres.org/articles/vetres/abs/2003/05/V3509/V3509.html
Somatic cell count: A somatic cell count (SCC) is a cell count of somatic cells in milk and used as quality indicator for milk and is quantified as cell per milliliter. The majority of somatic cells are white blood cells. The number of somatic cells increases in response to pathogenic bacteria, for example Staphylococcus aureus, a cause of mastitis.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleStockperson Training - Dairy CattleCalculate B1 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have documentation that those who are in contact with dairy cattle are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100.
The training program and accompanying documentation must include, but not be limited to: facility requirements, humane animal handling, animal behavior, and injury and disease detection. Examples of implementation of these criteria by all stockpersons are understanding the physical and environmental requirements for cattle, understanding stress factors like other cattle, personnel, strange noises, sights, sounds, and smells, recognizing common diseases, illnesses, and injuries; recognize normal cattle activity and behavior. Additional training may need to be required for monitoring individual cow health, proper equipment use and newborn-calf management, or to outside workers like transporters or foot trimmers. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples of initiatives that meet these requirements.
Initial training is necessary to perform job duties. Training must be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices (not necessarily on an annual basis) and to prevent training exhaustion. See the Background Information for further reading on the relation between stockperson training and animal welfare.
Perform this calculation using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

National Dairy FARM Program Animal Care Reference Manual: The FARM Program is a nationwide, verifiable animal well-being program in the United States that provides consistency and uniformity to best practices in animal care. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Version-3-Manual-1.pdf

Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO): Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO) is an animal auditing and certification organization in the United States. PAACO promotes the humane treatment of animals through education and certification of animal auditors as well as the review and/or certification of animal audit instruments, assessments, and programs. https://animalauditor.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme (SDAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-dairy-assurance-scheme-sdas/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Stockperson Training and Animal Welfare: This Revue Scientifique et Technique provides a paper titled: Training to improve stockperson beliefs and behavior towards livestock enhances welfare and productivity. https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D13660.PDF
Stockperson: A professional manager of animals. A stockperson's attitude and behavior effects animal welfare and productivity.
Animal Welfare - Dairy CattleAnimal Welfare - Dairy CattleYoung Stock Management - Dairy CattleCalculate B1 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have a clean, dry, well-lit, and well-ventilated calving area, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the calving area must be designed to be comfortable, functional and hygienic, and must allow for close observation of the cow and easier, more effective assistance at calving.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that apply navel dipping directly after birth, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the navel of a newborn calve must be dipped in disinfectant directly after birth.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that have a standard operating procedure for the nutrition of newborn and milk-fed dairy calves, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the standard operating procedure must meet with the requirements set out in the national FARM program in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. The requirements are, but are not limited to: all calves receive colostrum or colostrum replacer as soon as possible after birth. The volume and quantity must maintain health, growth and vigor until weaning. Calves have access to clean and fresh water, are offered starter feed. Animal caretakers are trained in calf care nutritional requirements.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that primarily house pre-weaned calves in group housing, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B4, a calf must be housed in groups for the majority of the period between birth and weaning. A group is defined as two calves or more.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your milk supply that came from dairy farms that primarily house pre-weaned calves in individual housing, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B5, a calf must be housed in individual pens or hutches for the majority of the period between birth and weaning.
The percentages reported for B4 and B5 must be mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Dairy Cattle: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the dairy supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/DY/

National Dairy FARM Program Standards for Animal Care: This program provides guidelines for animal care and resources for implementing best practices. A manual and quick reference guide are available for promoting animal welfare for dairy cattle. https://nationaldairyfarm.com/dairy-farm-standards/animal-care/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of dairy cattle taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/dairycattle

Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme (SDAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Dairy Assurance Scheme is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-dairy-assurance-scheme-sdas/
Cattle Disease Prevention and Cattle Health Protection: Guidance on the main diseases that affect cattle, disease prevention, and legal controls in place to protect cattle health in the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/cattle-health#cattle-diseases

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of dairy cattle. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/dairy_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Dairy Cattle: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of dairy cattle. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/AnimalWelfareGuidelineforDairyFarmers2003.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Cattle: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of cattle. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69368/pb7949-cattle-code-030407.pdf

Paper on the Calf Nutrition from Birth to Breeding: The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice provides a peer-reviewed paper with the title: Calf Nutrition from Birth to Breeding. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0749072008000029
N/A
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Health Management – Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms with a verified veterinary-client-patient relationship, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a veterinary-client-patient relationship must meet the criteria of the American Veterinary Medical Association or the European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. See Certifications, Standards & Tools for more details.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms with designated individual(s) in place to evaluate animal health and welfare, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. A designated individual must have the skills to evaluate animal health and welfare and be verifiably trained and experienced in managing health and welfare of farmed fish. Evaluation of animal health and welfare includes fish activity and behavior, prevalence of diseases, injury detection, and availability of water and feed.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms with an animal health performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. Animal health monitoring systems should include monitoring the prevalence of disease and incidence of injuries and evaluation of data for information to integrate into management and communication with animal care teams (including veterinarians). An animal health performance monitoring system includes production performance, incidence of common injuries, and prevalence of diseases. See the Background Information for factsheets that include a list of common diseases and injuries in farmed fish.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx
Compassion in World Farming Briefing - The Welfare of Farmed Fish: Briefing that covers health problems and disease, handling, stocking density, breeding methods, genetic selection and genetic engineering, and farming of new fish species. https://www.ciwf.org.uk/media/3818654/farmed-fish-briefing.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) - Listed diseases 2021- Fish Diseases: The OIE established a single list of notable terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases. https://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/oie-listed-diseases-2021/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code: Section 7 of the OIE Aquatic Health Code outlines the guidance for acceptable welfare of farmed fish. https://www.oie.int/index.php?id=171&L=0&htmfile=titre_1.7.htm
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.

Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR): A cooperative relationship between a veterinarian, a client and the patient. A VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians and their clients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. Veterinarians and their clients may choose to establish a VCPR, and to decide on veterinary medical care under the terms of the VCPR. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the VCPR in the US, which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Farmed Fish Transport and SlaughterCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in the Aquatic Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 or B2, as described by OIE, fish should not be transported if they are not fit to travel. For those fish fit to travel, the number of journeys and the length of time should be minimized. Loading and unloading procedures should minimize stress, prevent injury, and use facilities that promote calm and safe fish movement. Protection from extreme temperatures and other extreme conditions is provided. In addition, fish density should be kept inversely proportional to transport time and water temperature. Dissolved oxygen saturation levels should be monitored during transport (safe values range from 85 to 120%) as well as levels of carbon dioxide.
To be included in B3 or B4, as described by OIE, fish should be treated humanely before and during all slaughter procedures, including pre-slaughter stunning for non-ritual slaughter. The pre-slaughter stunning must render the fish insensible to pain until death occurs. The minimization of fear, stress, and pain is included in humane treatment.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Harvesting of Farmed Fish: The Humane Slaughter Association (HSA) works to improve standards of welfare for food animals during transport, marketing, slaughter, and killing. Through research, education, training and innovations they aim to improve animal welfare around the world. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/related-items/harvesting-of-fish.pdf

Scientific opinion on the welfare of several species and animals during transport, including fish: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carries out activities on fish welfare in the wider context of animal health and welfare in the Panel on animal health and welfare. In an opinion in 2004 on the welfare of several species of animals during transport, EFSA experts identified a variety of hazards that contribute to poor welfare for several animals, including fish. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/animal-welfare

The Sustainability Consortium's Seafood Sustainability Program Principles: Principles developed by The Sustainability Consortium, to evaluate seafood sustainability programs, including rating systems, certification schemes, or assessment tools. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/projects/seafood-sustainability-principles/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code: Section 7 of the OIE Aquatic Health Code outlines the guidance for acceptable welfare of farmed fish. https://www.oie.int/index.php?id=171&L=0&htmfile=titre_1.7.htm
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Fish Hatcheries and FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the farm stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the farm stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 through B4, as described by OIE, efforts should be taken to achieve minimization of pain, risk of injury, and transmission of diseases or parasites to animals; a physical environment in which the water and environmental quality supports good fish health; a structural and social environment that allow fish to swim comfortably, provide opportunities for physical and cognitive activity, and allow for the opportunity to perform beneficial innate and positive behaviors.
Fish should have access to sufficient and appropriate feed and be free from hunger. The handling of fish at both the hatchery and fish farms should foster a positive relationship between humans and fish and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress. At a fish hatchery eggs are hatched, and fish are bread and reared through their early life stages, until they are transported to grow out system (fish farms). At the farm stage aquatic animals are only produced for harvest and slaughter for human consumption. This stage includes the following activities: handling, grading, feeding, fasting and crowding.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Assured for Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
The Sustainability Consortium's Seafood Sustainability Program Principles: Principles developed by The Sustainability Consortium, to evaluate seafood sustainability programs, including rating systems, certification schemes, or assessment tools. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/projects/seafood-sustainability-principles/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code: Section 7 of the OIE Aquatic Health Code outlines the guidance for acceptable welfare of farmed fish. https://www.oie.int/index.php?id=171&L=0&htmfile=titre_1.7.htm
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare PolicyRespond with the option that most closely reflects your company's animal welfare policy.
For B, your company must publicly disclose a policy statement that contains a broad commitment to farm animal welfare. The policy must include no tolerance for abuse and a commitment to internationally recognized farm animal welfare principles, for example the OIE principles.
For C, in addition to B, your company must publicly disclose how your commitment to farm animal welfare is implemented and the policy must include the following: A clear statement on why animal welfare is important for your company, a commitment to comply with relevant legislation, a statement on expected farm animal welfare standards, a commitment to continuous improvement and public disclosure of animal welfare performance, and a description of the processes to ensure the effective implementation of your policy, for example senior management oversight, performance monitoring, or corrective actions.
This question aligns with the Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare, listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. Other standards or tools may also be applicable.
BBFAW Methodology Report: The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) Methodology Report 2015 provides an independent assessment of how 90 of the world’s largest food companies are managing and reporting on farm animal welfare and assesses the progress that has been made. BBFAW is designed to improve corporate reporting on farm animal welfare and drive tangible improvements in the farm animal welfare practices and performance. https://www.bbfaw.com/benchmark/N/AAnimal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishCulling Management - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms that have a standard operation procedure for culling, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1 culling of fish must be done according to prescribed methods including safe disposal and stunning prior to killing.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms that track the reasons for culling, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the method and reasons of culling must be tracked.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Assured for Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish at the Time of Killing: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319331/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish_at_the_time_of_killing.pdfStandard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishHatching Management - BroodstockCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply came from hatcheries where broodstock fish are anaesthetized during stripping and sperm collection is performed by trained and competent personnel, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, stripping should not be done more than twice over the season, and after the stripping anaesthetized fish should be placed in a recovery tank and monitored.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply came hatcheries where the health of broodstock fish is inspected daily by trained and competent personnel, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, times of broodstock fish observation checks, notes of any problems identified, and actions taken must be recorded.
Fish hatching activities include (adapted from FAO): selection of brood fish from nature or from fish ponds; transport of brood fish to the hatchery; rearing of brood fish; inducing final maturation and ovulation with hormone treatment; procurement of ripe eggs by stripping; procurement of milt by dissection of a male donor; artificial fertilization; incubation and hatching of eggs; rearing of larvae and fry; raising of fry/fingerlings; transport of fry/fingerling to grow out farms.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
The Code of Good Practice - Scottish Finfish Aquaculture: The Code of Good Practice was launched in 2006 and covers the production of all types of finfish farmed in Scotland and underpins every aspect of the farming process. http://thecodeofgoodpractice.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/cogp-chap-1-broodstock-feb-15.pdfStripping: Removal of the eggs from a mouth brooding fish.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishMortality Rate - Farmed FishMortality rate is an indirect measure of animal welfare. It adds value to the interpretation of other key performance indicators concerning culling management, animal welfare certification and audits, production systems, and animal health management.
Calculate B1 as the average mortality rate of fingerlings at the hatcheries in your supply chain, weighted by number of fingerlings present by each hatchery. For each hatchery, calculate the mortality rate of fingerlings as the number of deceased fingerlings prior to reaching the production stage, divided by the total number of fingerlings present, then multiply by 100. See the Background Information for the major reasons for mortality.
Calculate B3 as the average mortality rate of production fish at the fish farms in your supply chain, weighted by the mass of farmed fish supplied. For each aquaculture operation, calculate the mortality rate of production fish as the number of deceased production fish between fingerling stage and prior to harvesting, divided by the total number of production fish present, then multiply by 100.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the fish farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of fingerling fish for which you were able to obtain data, divided by your total fingerlings supply, then multiply by 100. Calculate B4 as the mass of your farmed fish for which you were able to obtain data, divided by your total farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Major Causes of Mortality in Catfish: Catfish Farming provides an overview of the major causes of mortality in catfish farming. https://www.profitablefishfarming.com/major-causes-of-mortality-in-catfish/

Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319323/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish.pdf

The Welfare of Animals in the Aquaculture Industry: The Humane Society of the United States published a report on animal welfare in aquaculture including mortality. https://www.humanesociety.org/sites/default/files/docs/hsus-report-animal-welfare-aquaculture-industry.pdf
Mortality: The uncontrolled death of animals and cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the farm.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishPre-Slaughter Stunning Transparency - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish that were effectively electrically stunned, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish that were effectively percussively stunned, divided by the total mass of farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. Since percussive stunning is reversible, an additional killing procedure is required, such as bleeding.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply came from fish that were effectively stunned prior to slaughter using other methods, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1 through B3 are mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdfAn HSUS Report: The Welfare of Farmed Fish at Slaughter: This paper gives an overview of the background of farmed fish slaughter, methods of assessing insensibility of fish, and humane and non-humane slaughter techniques https://www.wellbeingintlstudiesrepository.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1003&context=hsus_reps_impacts_on_animals

Humane harvesting and slaughter of farmed fish (OIE): This report describes animal welfare issues during fasting, gathering and transporting to the point of slaughter, and stunning and killing. https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D13673.PDF

Live Transport of Farmed Fish - Fishcount: Fishcount aims, among other issues, to increase awareness of the welfare issues in fish farming. http://fishcount.org.uk/farmed-fish-welfare/farmed-fish-transport

Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish at the Time of Killing: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319331/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish_at_the_time_of_killing.pdf
Stunning: Stunning is the process of rendering the animal unconscious prior to slaughter.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishStocking Density Management - FinfishCalculate C1 as the mass of your farmed finfish supply that came from fish farms that apply written procedures or parameters for stocking density of the farmed finfish in your supply chain, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in C1, your company should publicly disclose a document that contains the parameters for stocking density of the farmed finfish in your supply chain. Examples of these parameters are outlined by the RSPCA. The RSPCA uses a crowd intensity scale (1-5) for finfish:
Level 1: Goal, low stress, no vigorous activity. Observations include: fish in the sides of the crowd swimming slowly; normal swimming behavior, but not all in the same direction; no dorsal fins on surface; no white sides on surface.
Level 2: Acceptable – some fins on surface. Observations include: normal swimming behavior at suction point, low stress; few dorsal fins on surface; no white sides on surface.
Level 3: Undesirable. Observations include: over-excited swimming behavior (different directions); more than 20 dorsal fins on surface; some white sides constantly on surface.
Level 4: Unacceptable – overcrowding. Observations include: over-excited swimming behavior (different directions); some fish decreasing activity; pumping rate: Not possible to keep a constant rate; many fish stuck up against the crowd net; many dorsal fins on surface and numerous white sides on surface; a few very lethargic fish.
Level 5: Unacceptable – extreme overcrowding. Observations include: whole crowd boiling; potential for large fish kill without rapid release.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
N/AN/A
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishStockperson Training - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms that have documentation that those who are in contact with fish are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from transporters that have documentation that those who are in contact with fish are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from slaughter facilities that have documentation that those who are in contact with fish are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
To be included in B1 through B3, a training program and accompanying documentation must meet the training criteria as outlined by the RSPCA Welfare Standards: Management or equivalent. The result of a training program and accompanying documentation must be that stockpersons are able to recognize indicators of poor welfare at an early stage. In order to be able to do this, they need to have a good understanding of the husbandry system used and the animals under their care. Stockpersons must be able to show their working knowledge of procedures that have the potential to cause pain or distress including netting or other handling, crowding and euthanasia. They should also be able to recognize indicators of poor welfare in fish including abnormal behavior, physical injury and symptoms of disease.
Initial training is necessary to perform job duties. Training must be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices (not necessarily on an annual basis) and to prevent training exhaustion. See the Background Information for examples of training courses.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
NAFC Marine Center - Fish Welfare: A training program on fish welfare, aquaculture industry standards, relevant legislation, enhanced productivity, and improved consumer confidence. This course satisfies the RSPCA welfare standards for farmed Atlantic Salmon as well as the requirements for other certification schemes and codes of practice, including GLOBALG.A.P. https://www.nafc.uhi.ac.uk/courses/fish-welfare/

NAFC Marine Centre Fish Welfare Training course: A training program on Fish Welfare. https://www.nafc.uhi.ac.uk/courses/fish-welfare/
Stockperson: A professional manager of animals. A stockperson's attitude and behavior effects animal welfare and productivity.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishTransportation to Slaughter - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the number of your suppliers that publicly disclose a transportation plan that specifies how animal welfare is covered during transportation to slaughter, divided by the total number of your suppliers, then multiply by 100. The transportation plan must meet the guidelines provided by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These guidelines include, but are not limited to: handling, training, transport conditions, record keeping, and equipment. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools, and Background Information for more information.
Calculate B3 as the average dead-on-arrival rate per delivery at the slaughter facility, weighted by the mass of fish meat supplied by each delivery. For each delivery at the slaughter facility, calculate the dead-on-arrival rate as the number of deceased fish during transport, divided by the number of fish that were transported, then multiply by 100.
If primary data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an aquacultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the fish farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of farmed fish supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of fish meat supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Fish Welfare During Transport - Humane Slaughter Association (HSA): The Human Slaughter Association organized a forum to bring together people involved in the transport of fish to discuss current practice and knowledge and help to identify knowledge gaps. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/info/fish-transport-proceddings.pdf

Opinion on the Welfare of Animals during Transport: The European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel) published an opinion including a variety of stressors involved in transport relating to the welfare of animals, including fish. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1966

Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish at the Time of Killing: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319331/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish_at_the_time_of_killing.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) - Chapter 7.2: Welfare of farmed fish during transport: The World Organisation for Animal Health provides information to minimize the effect of transport on the welfare of farmed fish. https://www.oie.int/standard-setting/aquatic-code/access-online/
N/A
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed FishWater and Environmental Quality - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms that had a system in place to maintain adequate water and environmental quality, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Water quality is one of the most critical factors affecting finfish welfare and should be closely monitored in all aquaculture systems. Water is the source of oxygen and also plays a vital role in disposing of wastes; it dilutes feces and, if there is sufficient water flow, it removes feces and uneaten feed. The monitoring system must be site-specific and species-specific. The main components of water and environmental quality include: oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia levels, pH, salinity, temperature, chemical composition, water flow, turbidity, and lighting.
Perform this calculation using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319323/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish.pdfAdequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonAnimal Health Management – Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms with a verified veterinary-client-patient relationship, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a veterinary-client-patient relationship must meet the criteria of the American Veterinary Medical Association or the European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. See Certifications, Standards & Tools for more details.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms with designated individual(s) in place to evaluate animal health and welfare, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. A designated individual must have the skills to evaluate animal health and welfare and be verifiably trained and experienced in managing health and welfare of farmed fish. Evaluation of animal health and welfare includes fish activity and behavior, prevalence of diseases, injury detection, and availability of water and feed.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms with an animal health performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your milk supply, then multiply by 100. Animal health monitoring systems should include monitoring the prevalence of disease and incidence of injuries and evaluation of data for information to integrate into management and communication with animal care teams (including veterinarians). An animal health performance monitoring system includes production performance, incidence of common injuries, and prevalence of diseases. See the Background Information for factsheets that include a list of common diseases and injuries in farmed fish.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx
Compassion in World Farming Briefing - The Welfare of Farmed Fish: Briefing that covers health problems and disease, handling, stocking density, breeding methods, genetic selection and genetic engineering, and farming of new fish species. https://www.ciwf.org.uk/media/3818654/farmed-fish-briefing.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) - Listed diseases 2021- Fish Diseases: The OIE established a single list of notable terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases. https://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/oie-listed-diseases-2021/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code: Section 7 of the OIE Aquatic Health Code outlines the guidance for acceptable welfare of farmed fish. https://www.oie.int/index.php?id=171&L=0&htmfile=titre_1.7.htm
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.

Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR): A cooperative relationship between a veterinarian, a client and the patient. A VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians and their clients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. Veterinarians and their clients may choose to establish a VCPR, and to decide on veterinary medical care under the terms of the VCPR. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the VCPR in the US, which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Farmed Fish Transport and SlaughterCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in the Aquatic Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 or B2, as described by OIE, fish should not be transported if they are not fit to travel. For those fish fit to travel, the number of journeys and the length of time should be minimized. Loading and unloading procedures should minimize stress, prevent injury, and use facilities that promote calm and safe fish movement. Protection from extreme temperatures and other extreme conditions is provided. In addition, fish density should be kept inversely proportional to transport time and water temperature. Dissolved oxygen saturation levels should be monitored during transport (safe values range from 85 to 120%) as well as levels of carbon dioxide.
To be included in B3 or B4, as described by OIE, fish should be treated humanely before and during all slaughter procedures, including pre-slaughter stunning for non-ritual slaughter. The pre-slaughter stunning must render the fish insensible to pain until death occurs. The minimization of fear, stress, and pain is included in humane treatment.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Harvesting of Farmed Fish: The Humane Slaughter Association (HSA) works to improve standards of welfare for food animals during transport, marketing, slaughter, and killing. Through research, education, training and innovations they aim to improve animal welfare around the world. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/related-items/harvesting-of-fish.pdf

Scientific opinion on the welfare of several species and animals during transport, including fish: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carries out activities on fish welfare in the wider context of animal health and welfare in the Panel on animal health and welfare. In an opinion in 2004 on the welfare of several species of animals during transport, EFSA experts identified a variety of hazards that contribute to poor welfare for several animals, including fish. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/animal-welfare

The Sustainability Consortium's Seafood Sustainability Program Principles: Principles developed by The Sustainability Consortium, to evaluate seafood sustainability programs, including rating systems, certification schemes, or assessment tools. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/projects/seafood-sustainability-principles/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code: Section 7 of the OIE Aquatic Health Code outlines the guidance for acceptable welfare of farmed fish. https://www.oie.int/index.php?id=171&L=0&htmfile=titre_1.7.htm
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Fish Hatcheries and FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the farm stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the farm stage, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 through B4, as described by OIE, efforts should be taken to achieve minimization of pain, risk of injury, and transmission of diseases or parasites to animals; a physical environment in which the water and environmental quality supports good fish health; a structural and social environment that allow fish to swim comfortably, provide opportunities for physical and cognitive activity, and allow for the opportunity to perform beneficial innate and positive behaviors.
Fish should have access to sufficient and appropriate feed and be free from hunger. The handling of fish at both the hatchery and fish farms should foster a positive relationship between humans and fish and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress. At a fish hatchery eggs are hatched, and fish are bread and reared through their early life stages, until they are transported to grow out system (fish farms). At the farm stage aquatic animals are only produced for harvest and slaughter for human consumption. This stage includes the following activities: handling, grading, feeding, fasting and crowding.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Assured for Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
The Sustainability Consortium's Seafood Sustainability Program Principles: Principles developed by The Sustainability Consortium, to evaluate seafood sustainability programs, including rating systems, certification schemes, or assessment tools. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/projects/seafood-sustainability-principles/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code: Section 7 of the OIE Aquatic Health Code outlines the guidance for acceptable welfare of farmed fish. https://www.oie.int/index.php?id=171&L=0&htmfile=titre_1.7.htm
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonAnimal Welfare PolicyRespond with the option that most closely reflects your company's animal welfare policy.
For B, your company must publicly disclose a policy statement that contains a broad commitment to farm animal welfare. The policy must include no tolerance for abuse and a commitment to internationally recognized farm animal welfare principles, for example the OIE principles.
For C, in addition to B, your company must publicly disclose how your commitment to farm animal welfare is implemented and the policy must include the following: A clear statement on why animal welfare is important for your company, a commitment to comply with relevant legislation, a statement on expected farm animal welfare standards, a commitment to continuous improvement and public disclosure of animal welfare performance, and a description of the processes to ensure the effective implementation of your policy, for example senior management oversight, performance monitoring, or corrective actions.
This question aligns with the Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare, listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. Other standards or tools may also be applicable.
BBFAW Methodology Report: The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) Methodology Report 2015 provides an independent assessment of how 90 of the world’s largest food companies are managing and reporting on farm animal welfare and assesses the progress that has been made. BBFAW is designed to improve corporate reporting on farm animal welfare and drive tangible improvements in the farm animal welfare practices and performance. https://www.bbfaw.com/benchmark/N/AAnimal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonCulling Management - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms that have a standard operation procedure for culling, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1 culling of fish must be done according to prescribed methods including safe disposal and stunning prior to killing.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms that track the reasons for culling, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the method and reasons of culling must be tracked.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Assured for Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish at the Time of Killing: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319331/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish_at_the_time_of_killing.pdfStandard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonHatching Management - BroodstockCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply came from hatcheries where broodstock fish are anaesthetized during stripping and sperm collection is performed by trained and competent personnel, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, stripping should not be done more than twice over the season, and after the stripping anaesthetized fish should be placed in a recovery tank and monitored.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply came hatcheries where the health of broodstock fish is inspected daily by trained and competent personnel, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, times of broodstock fish observation checks, notes of any problems identified, and actions taken must be recorded.
Fish hatching activities include (adapted from FAO): selection of brood fish from nature or from fish ponds; transport of brood fish to the hatchery; rearing of brood fish; inducing final maturation and ovulation with hormone treatment; procurement of ripe eggs by stripping; procurement of milt by dissection of a male donor; artificial fertilization; incubation and hatching of eggs; rearing of larvae and fry; raising of fry/fingerlings; transport of fry/fingerling to grow out farms.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
The Code of Good Practice - Scottish Finfish Aquaculture: The Code of Good Practice was launched in 2006 and covers the production of all types of finfish farmed in Scotland and underpins every aspect of the farming process. http://thecodeofgoodpractice.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/cogp-chap-1-broodstock-feb-15.pdfStripping: Removal of the eggs from a mouth brooding fish.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonMortality Rate - Farmed FishMortality rate is an indirect measure of animal welfare. It adds value to the interpretation of other key performance indicators concerning culling management, animal welfare certification and audits, production systems, and animal health management.
Calculate B1 as the average mortality rate of fingerlings at the hatcheries in your supply chain, weighted by number of fingerlings present by each hatchery. For each hatchery, calculate the mortality rate of fingerlings as the number of deceased fingerlings prior to reaching the production stage, divided by the total number of fingerlings present, then multiply by 100. See the Background Information for the major reasons for mortality.
Calculate B3 as the average mortality rate of production fish at the fish farms in your supply chain, weighted by the mass of farmed fish supplied. For each aquaculture operation, calculate the mortality rate of production fish as the number of deceased production fish between fingerling stage and prior to harvesting, divided by the total number of production fish present, then multiply by 100.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the fish farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of fingerling fish for which you were able to obtain data, divided by your total fingerlings supply, then multiply by 100. Calculate B4 as the mass of your farmed fish for which you were able to obtain data, divided by your total farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Major Causes of Mortality in Catfish: Catfish Farming provides an overview of the major causes of mortality in catfish farming. https://www.profitablefishfarming.com/major-causes-of-mortality-in-catfish/

Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319323/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish.pdf

The Welfare of Animals in the Aquaculture Industry: The Humane Society of the United States published a report on animal welfare in aquaculture including mortality. https://www.humanesociety.org/sites/default/files/docs/hsus-report-animal-welfare-aquaculture-industry.pdf
Mortality: The uncontrolled death of animals and cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the farm.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonPre-Slaughter Stunning Transparency - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish that were effectively electrically stunned, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish that were effectively percussively stunned, divided by the total mass of farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. Since percussive stunning is reversible, an additional killing procedure is required, such as bleeding.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply came from fish that were effectively stunned prior to slaughter using other methods, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1 through B3 are mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdfAn HSUS Report: The Welfare of Farmed Fish at Slaughter: This paper gives an overview of the background of farmed fish slaughter, methods of assessing insensibility of fish, and humane and non-humane slaughter techniques https://www.wellbeingintlstudiesrepository.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1003&context=hsus_reps_impacts_on_animals

Humane harvesting and slaughter of farmed fish (OIE): This report describes animal welfare issues during fasting, gathering and transporting to the point of slaughter, and stunning and killing. https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D13673.PDF

Live Transport of Farmed Fish - Fishcount: Fishcount aims, among other issues, to increase awareness of the welfare issues in fish farming. http://fishcount.org.uk/farmed-fish-welfare/farmed-fish-transport

Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish at the Time of Killing: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319331/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish_at_the_time_of_killing.pdf
Stunning: Stunning is the process of rendering the animal unconscious prior to slaughter.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonStocking Density Management - FinfishCalculate C1 as the mass of your farmed finfish supply that came from fish farms that apply written procedures or parameters for stocking density of the farmed finfish in your supply chain, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in C1, your company should publicly disclose a document that contains the parameters for stocking density of the farmed finfish in your supply chain. Examples of these parameters are outlined by the RSPCA. The RSPCA uses a crowd intensity scale (1-5) for finfish:
Level 1: Goal, low stress, no vigorous activity. Observations include: fish in the sides of the crowd swimming slowly; normal swimming behavior, but not all in the same direction; no dorsal fins on surface; no white sides on surface.
Level 2: Acceptable – some fins on surface. Observations include: normal swimming behavior at suction point, low stress; few dorsal fins on surface; no white sides on surface.
Level 3: Undesirable. Observations include: over-excited swimming behavior (different directions); more than 20 dorsal fins on surface; some white sides constantly on surface.
Level 4: Unacceptable – overcrowding. Observations include: over-excited swimming behavior (different directions); some fish decreasing activity; pumping rate: Not possible to keep a constant rate; many fish stuck up against the crowd net; many dorsal fins on surface and numerous white sides on surface; a few very lethargic fish.
Level 5: Unacceptable – extreme overcrowding. Observations include: whole crowd boiling; potential for large fish kill without rapid release.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
N/AN/A
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonStockperson Training - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms that have documentation that those who are in contact with fish are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from transporters that have documentation that those who are in contact with fish are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from slaughter facilities that have documentation that those who are in contact with fish are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
To be included in B1 through B3, a training program and accompanying documentation must meet the training criteria as outlined by the RSPCA Welfare Standards: Management or equivalent. The result of a training program and accompanying documentation must be that stockpersons are able to recognize indicators of poor welfare at an early stage. In order to be able to do this, they need to have a good understanding of the husbandry system used and the animals under their care. Stockpersons must be able to show their working knowledge of procedures that have the potential to cause pain or distress including netting or other handling, crowding and euthanasia. They should also be able to recognize indicators of poor welfare in fish including abnormal behavior, physical injury and symptoms of disease.
Initial training is necessary to perform job duties. Training must be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices (not necessarily on an annual basis) and to prevent training exhaustion. See the Background Information for examples of training courses.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
NAFC Marine Center - Fish Welfare: A training program on fish welfare, aquaculture industry standards, relevant legislation, enhanced productivity, and improved consumer confidence. This course satisfies the RSPCA welfare standards for farmed Atlantic Salmon as well as the requirements for other certification schemes and codes of practice, including GLOBALG.A.P. https://www.nafc.uhi.ac.uk/courses/fish-welfare/

NAFC Marine Centre Fish Welfare Training course: A training program on Fish Welfare. https://www.nafc.uhi.ac.uk/courses/fish-welfare/
Stockperson: A professional manager of animals. A stockperson's attitude and behavior effects animal welfare and productivity.
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonTransportation to Slaughter - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the number of your suppliers that publicly disclose a transportation plan that specifies how animal welfare is covered during transportation to slaughter, divided by the total number of your suppliers, then multiply by 100. The transportation plan must meet the guidelines provided by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These guidelines include, but are not limited to: handling, training, transport conditions, record keeping, and equipment. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools, and Background Information for more information.
Calculate B3 as the average dead-on-arrival rate per delivery at the slaughter facility, weighted by the mass of fish meat supplied by each delivery. For each delivery at the slaughter facility, calculate the dead-on-arrival rate as the number of deceased fish during transport, divided by the number of fish that were transported, then multiply by 100.
If primary data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an aquacultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the fish farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of farmed fish supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of fish meat supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Fish Welfare During Transport - Humane Slaughter Association (HSA): The Human Slaughter Association organized a forum to bring together people involved in the transport of fish to discuss current practice and knowledge and help to identify knowledge gaps. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/info/fish-transport-proceddings.pdf

Opinion on the Welfare of Animals during Transport: The European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel) published an opinion including a variety of stressors involved in transport relating to the welfare of animals, including fish. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1966

Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish at the Time of Killing: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319331/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish_at_the_time_of_killing.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) - Chapter 7.2: Welfare of farmed fish during transport: The World Organisation for Animal Health provides information to minimize the effect of transport on the welfare of farmed fish. https://www.oie.int/standard-setting/aquatic-code/access-online/
N/A
Animal Welfare - Farmed FishAnimal Welfare - Farmed SalmonWater and Environmental Quality - Farmed FishCalculate B1 as the mass of your farmed fish supply that came from fish farms that had a system in place to maintain adequate water and environmental quality, divided by the total mass of your farmed fish supply, then multiply by 100.
Water quality is one of the most critical factors affecting finfish welfare and should be closely monitored in all aquaculture systems. Water is the source of oxygen and also plays a vital role in disposing of wastes; it dilutes feces and, if there is sufficient water flow, it removes feces and uneaten feed. The monitoring system must be site-specific and species-specific. The main components of water and environmental quality include: oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia levels, pH, salinity, temperature, chemical composition, water flow, turbidity, and lighting.
Perform this calculation using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP): Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) covers, amongst other criteria, animal health and animal welfare. https://www.bapcertification.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Atlantic Salmon taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) welfare standards for farmed Rainbow Trout: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of Rainbow Trout taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/trout

The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard: The GLOBALG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard covers, amongst other criteria, animal welfare at all the stages of production. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/media-events/news/articles/New-GLOBALG.A.P.-Aquaculture-Standard-Version-5/
Opinion on the Welfare of Farmed Fish: The Farm Animal Welfare Committee (FAWC) is an expert committee of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England and the Devolved Administrations in Scotland and Wales. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/319323/Opinion_on_the_welfare_of_farmed_fish.pdfAdequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Health Management – Laying Hen FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms with a verified veterinary-client-patient relationship, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a veterinary-client-patient relationship must meet the criteria of the American Veterinary Medical Association or the European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more details.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms with designated individual(s) in place to evaluate animal health and welfare, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. A designated individual must have the skills to evaluate animal health and welfare and be verifiably trained and experienced in managing laying hen health and welfare. Evaluation of animal health and welfare includes flock activity and behavior, prevalence of diseases, injury detection, and availability of water and feed.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms with an animal health performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. Animal health monitoring systems should include monitoring the prevalence of disease and incidence of injuries and evaluation of data for information that can be integrated into management and communication with animal care teams (including veterinarians). An animal health performance monitoring system includes metrics on production performance, incidence of common injuries, and prevalence of diseases. See the Background Information for factsheets that include a list of common diseases and injuries in laying hens.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Egg Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Egg Assurance Scheme (SEAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-egg-assurance-scheme-seas/

European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals: The European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals is a multi-stakeholder platform linking best practice with animal health and public health and aims to promote the responsible use of medicines in animals in the European Union. https://www.epruma.eu/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf

Federation of Veterinarians of Europe - Herd Health Plan: The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe provides a policy paper that outlines objectives and benefits of a Herd Health Plan (HHP) for farms. A HHP aims to enhance animal health and welfare and quality of products by decreasing the use of veterinary medicinal products and feed additives and properly planning preventative healthcare. This paper also provides guidelines for the prevention of epizootics and zoonotic diseases and information about good husbandry practices. https://www.fve.org/publications/herd-health-plan/

Poultry Disease Factsheets: Inventory of 140 diseases in poultry flocks. The factsheets contain information on signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. http://www.thepoultrysite.com/diseaseinfo/

Poultry Disease Prevention and Poultry Health: Health of poultry, bird-specific diseases and infections, and the responsibility to report suspected outbreaks in the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/poultry-health

Poultry Health and Disease Factsheets: Inventory of most common poultry health and diseases in Australia. https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/animals-and-livestock/poultry-and-birds/health-disease

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR): A cooperative relationship between a veterinarian, a client and the patient. A VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians and their clients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. Veterinarians and their clients may choose to establish a VCPR, and to decide on veterinary medical care under the terms of the VCPR. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the VCPR in the US, which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Laying Hen Breeder and Laying Hen FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your egg supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your egg supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your egg supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the laying hen farm stage, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your egg supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the laying hen farm stage, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 through B4, as described by OIE, efforts should be taken to achieve minimization of pain, risk of injury, and transmission of diseases or parasites to laying hens; a physical environment in which the air quality, temperature, and humidity supports good laying hen health; a structural and social environment that allows laying hens to rest comfortably, provides opportunities for physical and cognitive activity, and allows for the opportunity to perform beneficial innate and positive behaviors. Laying hens should have access to sufficient water and appropriate feed and be free from hunger and thirst. The handling of laying hens should foster a positive relationship between humans and laying hens and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress.
Genetic selection should take into account the health and welfare of laying hens.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Egg Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Egg Assurance Scheme (SEAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-egg-assurance-scheme-seas/

European Council Directive 1999/74/EC: Outlines minimum standards for the protection of laying hens in Europe. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A01999L0074-20191214

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare PolicyRespond with the option that most closely reflects your company's animal welfare policy.
For B, your company must publicly disclose a policy statement that contains a broad commitment to farm animal welfare. The policy must include no tolerance for abuse and a commitment to internationally recognized farm animal welfare principles, for example the OIE principles.
For C, in addition to B, your company must publicly disclose how your commitment to farm animal welfare is implemented and the policy must include the following: A clear statement on why animal welfare is important for your company, a commitment to comply with relevant legislation, a statement on expected farm animal welfare standards, a commitment to continuous improvement and public disclosure of animal welfare performance, and a description of the processes to ensure the effective implementation of your policy, for example senior management oversight, performance monitoring, or corrective actions.
This question aligns with the Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare, listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. Other standards or tools may also be applicable.
BBFAW Methodology Report: The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) Methodology Report 2015 provides an independent assessment of how 90 of the world’s largest food companies are managing and reporting on farm animal welfare and assesses the progress that has been made. BBFAW is designed to improve corporate reporting on farm animal welfare and drive tangible improvements in the farm animal welfare practices and performance. https://www.bbfaw.com/benchmark/World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensBeak Trimming Management - Laying HensCalculate B1 as the average percentage of your egg supply that came from laying hens that received alternative beak trimming OR were not beak trimmed at the hatchery, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that received alternative beak trimming OR were not beak trimmed at the hatchery, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, hens must not be beak trimmed or have received electrical and hot- or cold-blade beak trimming. Alternative beak trimming methods must be proven to have welfare advantages compared to hot-blade beak trimming. An example of alternative beak trimming is infrared beak trimming.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of your egg supply that came from laying hens that were received from hatcheries that have a standard operating procedure for beak trimming, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that were received from hatcheries that have a standard operating procedure for beak trimming, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the standard operating procedure for beak trimming must meet the guidelines outlined by the United Egg Producers (UEP) in the United States, European legislation, or equivalent in other geographies. These guidelines include performing debeaking before ten days of age by trained crews. In addition, UEP calls out that secondary trimming may be needed when birds are five to eight weeks old, preventive secondary beak trimming is not recommended after birds are eight weeks old, and therapeutic beak trimming may be performed at any age if an outbreak of cannibalism occurs. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for the UEP guideline and guidelines for other geographies. Include any supply that came from hens that were not beak trimmed at the hatchery in both response option B1 and B2.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that have a standard operating procedure for beak trimming, divided by the total mass of egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, laying hen farms must have a standard operating procedure in place to take corrective action in case cannibalism occurs. Examples of corrective actions are secondary beak trimming, reduction of the lighting intensity, and housing enrichment.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Egg Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Egg Assurance Scheme (SEAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-egg-assurance-scheme-seas/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf

Description of Housing Systems for Laying Hens: A paper from the European Commission describing the welfare implications of changes in production systems for laying hens. http://www.laywel.eu/web/pdf/deliverable%2023.pdf

European Council Directive 1999/74/EC: Outlines minimum standards for the protection of laying hens in Europe. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A01999L0074-20191214

Welfare Implications of Beak Trimming: Peer-reviewed literature review on the welfare implications of beak trimming prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-beak-trimming
Beak trimming: Beak trimming or debeaking is the partial removal of laying hen beak. The beak can be shortened permanently or can be allowed to regrow. Beak trimming is a preventive measure to reduce damage caused by pecking such as cannibalism and feather pecking.

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.

Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensCulling Management - Laying HensCalculate B1 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that have a standard operating procedure for culling, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a standard operating procedure on culling should be aligned with the euthanasia guidelines from the United Egg Producers (UEP) in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. The UEP guidelines include training, euthanasia method, and death confirmation. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that track the reasons for culling, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the method and reasons of culling must be tracked.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Egg Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Egg Assurance Scheme (SEAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-egg-assurance-scheme-seas/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensEnd-of-Lay Culling Management - Laying HensCalculate B1 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that have a standard operating procedure for routine end-of-lay culling, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a standard operating procedure on culling should be aligned with the euthanasia guidelines from the United Egg Producers (UEP) in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. The UEP guidelines include training, euthanasia method, and death confirmation. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that depopulate spent laying hens at the farm, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf

Welfare Implications of Poultry Depopulation: This document summarizes the Welfare Implications of Poultry Depopulation and is prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/resources/AVMA-Guidelines-for-the-Depopulation-of-Animals.pdf

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Spent laying hen: A hen has stopped laying eggs or no longer performs adequately.

Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensHatching and Pullet Management - Laying HensCalculate B1 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that use hatcheries with standard operating procedures for culling chicks, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the hatcheries’ standard operating procedure must cover the method of euthanasia, the skills of an employee, and verification and documentation. To be included in B1, the method of euthanasia must be approved by the American Veterinary Medical Association in the United States, or its equivalent in other geographies. Rapid maceration or displacement of oxygen with nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, or other approved gas are preferred methods of cull chick and pipped egg euthanasia.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that use hatcheries with standard operating procedures for spraying of newly-hatched chicks, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the hatcheries’ standard operating procedure must cover the type of disinfectant used, the skills of an employee and verification and documentation. Additionally, the chicks must either not be sprayed with disinfectant or sprayed with a disinfectant that is not toxic or irritant.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that assess the broilers physical condition and have housing prepared at the time of delivery and placement, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the housing must be heated, cleaned, and water, feed, and bedding material must be available before the pullets are received; farm personnel must be available to inspect the pullets at the moment of arrival; problems must be documented and provided as feedback to the pullet farm. Examples of assessment criteria are alertness, vigor, condition, and behavior.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that that maintain an adequate temperature during unloading, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B4, recommended practices for the holding areas should be held at a temperature ranging from 21-27 degrees Celsius (70-80 degrees Fahrenheit) and at a relative humidity percentage ranging from 40-60.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that handle pullets carefully to minimize injuries and stress during unloading, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B5, pullets, including the crates and dollies holding pullets, must be handled with care.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
N/ACode of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Pipped egg: An egg prior to hatching where the chick has started to find a way with its beak to the air cell within the egg shell.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensHousing System Specifications - Laying HensInsights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of laying hens in your supply chain that are provided access to different levels for perching, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that are provided different levels for perching, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, multi-tiers should be provided and should be accessible to all laying hens to meet their behavior needs. Elevation must be considered both relative to the floor and relative to any platforms or tiers that are provided in the house. A multi-tier system must meet the criteria set by the standards listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools which include that hens must have free access to the entire littered floor area including the area under the raised tiers, raised tiers must have a system for removal of manure, vertical distances between tiers must be between 1.6 and 3.3 feet (49 and 100 centimeters) , the angle of descent to a lower tier should not exceed 45 degrees, and the horizontal distance between tiers should not be more than 2.6 feet (79 centimeters).
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of laying hens in your supply chain that are provided daily access to roughage, scattered grains, or pecking blocks, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that are provided daily access to roughage, scattered grains, or pecking blocks, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of laying hens in your supply chain that are provided adequate light levels, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that are kept in a housing that meet the criteria of a lighting program, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, an adequate light level must be arranged with a lighting program that meets with the criteria set by the standards listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. These criteria include that all buildings must have sufficient light levels that allow hens to see each other. The lighting system in houses must be designed and maintained to regulate a natural daily cycle for all hens to support a circadian rhythm with transitional periods to mimic dust and dawn, uninterrupted period of darkness of four hours, and meet with applicable legislation. For natural light, light apertures must be arranged so that light is distributed evenly within the housing. The minimum light intensity level at daytime must be at least ten lux and meet applicable legislation standards For example, in Europe a minimum light intensity level of 20 lux and an uninterrupted period of darkness of eight hours is required by law.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Egg Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Egg Assurance Scheme (SEAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-egg-assurance-scheme-seas/

European Council Directive 1999/74/EC: Outlines minimum standards for the protection of laying hens in Europe. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A01999L0074-20191214

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf

Comparison of Cage and Non-Cage Systems for Housing Laying Hens: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) factsheet comparing laying hen housing systems. https://www.avma.org/resources/animal-health-welfare/avma-issues-comparison-cage-and-non-cage-systems-housing-laying-hens

Description of Housing Systems for Laying Hens: A paper from the European Commission describing the welfare implications of changes in production systems for laying hens. http://www.laywel.eu/web/pdf/deliverable%2023.pdf

Scientific opinion on welfare aspects of the use of perches for laying hens: The European Food and Safety Authority panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides a peer reviewed paper on welfare aspects of perching. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4131

Welfare Implications of Laying Hen Housing: A literature review from the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) on welfare implications of laying hen housing systems. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-laying-hen-housing

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Adequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensHousing Systems Transparency - Laying HensThis question addresses transparency in production systems that are used in your supply chain. Insights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of laying hens in your supply chain that are housed in a battery or traditional cage system, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that are housed in a battery or traditional cage system, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of laying hens in your supply chain that are housed in an enriched cage or colony system, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that are housed in an enriched cage or colony system, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the housing system must meet the criteria set by EU legislation which states that cages must be at least 45 centimeters (17.7 inches) high and must provide 600 square centimeters (93 square inches) of space per hen and an additional 150 square centimeters (23.3 square inches) of nest space per hen. The cage must have litter, perches, and scratch areas. The perch and trough space per hen must be 15 and 12 centimeters (5.9 and 4.7 inches) wide respectively. If the housing system does not meet these criteria, it should be included in B1.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of laying hens in your supply chain that are housed in a cage-free barn or aviary system, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that are housed in a cage-free barn or aviary system, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100. A cage-free barn or aviary system can be single or multi-tiered. To be included in B3, the systems must be provided with litter and laying hens must have space for stretching and perching and access to sufficient nest-boxes. The housing system must meet the criteria set by the certifications listed in Certifications, Standards & Tools for cage-free barn or aviary systems. Any of your egg supply that does not meet the criteria for cage free barn or aviary systems must be included in B2 rather than B3.
Information on the criteria on cage-free eggs used in the United States and Europe is provided in the Background Information section.
Calculate B4 as the average percentage of laying hens in your supply chain that are housed in a free range system, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that are housed in a free range system, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100. In addition to B3, the housing system must meet the free range system criteria set by certifications listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools.
Information on the criteria on free-range housing systems used in the United States and Europe is provided in the Background Information section.
Calculate B5 as the average percentage of laying hens in your supply chain that are housed in a pasture system, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the number of laying hens that are housed in a pasture system, divided by the total number of laying hens, then multiply by 100.
The criteria for pasture systems include at least two acres (0.8 hectares) of pasture per every 1,000 hens. A quarter of this area must be available at any time the birds have access to exterior. The outdoor area must be provided with substantial cover of living vegetation and drinking water and must have a perimeter that extends no more than 400 yards (366 meters) from the hen house or provide a mobile shelter in a well-drained area with an overhead cover.
The percentages reported for B1 through B5 are mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Egg Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Sustainable Egg Assurance Scheme (SEAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/sustainable-egg-assurance-scheme-seas/

European Council Directive 1999/74/EC: Outlines minimum standards for the protection of laying hens in Europe. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A01999L0074-20191214

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf

Comparison of Cage and Non-Cage Systems for Housing Laying Hens: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) factsheet comparing laying hen housing systems. https://www.avma.org/resources/animal-health-welfare/avma-issues-comparison-cage-and-non-cage-systems-housing-laying-hens

Description of Housing Systems for Laying Hens: A paper from the European Commission describing the welfare implications of changes in production systems for laying hens. http://www.laywel.eu/web/pdf/deliverable%2023.pdf

European criteria on cage-free eggs: In Europe, the criteria on cage-free eggs include: at least one nest per seven laying hens; one third of the ground surface must be covered with litter and must be at least 250 square centimeters per hen; group nests must at least provide one square meter of nest space per 120 laying hens; the stocking density must not exceed nine laying hens per square meter of usable area; the usable floor area is at least 30 centimeters wide, offers 45 centimeters of headroom and does not exceed 14 percent floor slope. The nesting areas are excluded from the usable area; laying hens must have at least 15 cm of perching space per hen and the horizontal distance between perches must be at least 30 centimeters.

European criteria on free-range housing systems: In Europe, the criteria on free-range housing system requires that the free range area must be at least a hectare per every 2,500 hens. In both Europe and the United States, the criteria require that the area should be designed and managed to ensure it is in good condition and protected against parasites, rodents or insects. Popholes must be evenly distributed across any building walls that have openings to the exterior and provide adequate access to ensure free movement through openings of at least two meters (79 inches) per 1,000 hens. The popholes must be at least 35 centimeters (13.8 inches) high and 40 centimeters (15.8 inches) wide.

Scientific opinion on welfare aspects of the use of perches for laying hens: The European Food and Safety Authority panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides a peer reviewed paper on welfare aspects of perching. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4131

US criteria on cage-free eggs: In the United States, the criteria on cage-free eggs include: at least 15 percent of the usable floor area of the house is covered with litter and the litter must be maintained in a loose, friable condition; the usable floor space consists of the combined litter and drop-through area including elevated tiers and covers over belts but excludes nest space; single and multi-tiered systems provide a minimum space allowance of 1.5 and 1.0 square feet per hen respectively; cage-free housing provides at least nine square feet of nest space per 100 hens and the nests are provided with a suitable floor substrate; a minimum of six inches of linear perch space per hen and at least 20 percent of the perch space must be elevated a minimum of 16 inches above the adjacent floor.

US criteria on free-range housing systems: In the United States, the criteria on free-range housing systems include that the free range area must be at least an acre per every 2,000 hens, including portions of the range fenced off for regrowth of vegetation. A quarter of this area must be available at any time whenever birds have access to exterior. In both Europe and the United States, the criteria require that the area should be designed and managed to ensure it is in good condition and protected against parasites, rodents or insects. Popholes must be evenly distributed across any building walls that have openings to the exterior and provide adequate access to ensure free movement through openings of at least two meters (79 inches) per 1,000 hens. The popholes must be at least 35 centimeters (13.8 inches) high and 40 centimeters (15.8 inches) wide.

Welfare Implications of Laying Hen Housing: A literature review from the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) on welfare implications of laying hen housing systems. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-laying-hen-housing

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
N/A
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensMortality Rate - Laying HensMortality rate is an indirect measure of animal welfare. It adds value to the interpretation of other key performance indicators concerning culling management, animal welfare certification and audits, housing systems, and animal health management.
Calculate B1 as the average mortality rate in the most recently completed flock cycle, weighted by the mass of eggs supplied by each laying hen farm. For each laying hen farm, calculate the mortality rate as the number of deceased laying hens in the most recently completed flock cycle, divided by the total number of laying hens that started in the most recently completed flock cycle, then multiply by 100. Mortality is defined as the uncontrollable death of a laying hen as well as cases of euthanasia at the laying hen farm. Exclude depopulation of spent laying hens.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the laying hen farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the mass of eggs supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported a regional estimate for B1, then report 0% for B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf
Mortality: The uncontrolled death of animals and cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the farm.
Animal Welfare - Laying HensAnimal Welfare - Laying HensStockperson Training - Laying HensCalculate B1 as the mass of your egg supply that came from laying hen farms that have documentation that those who are in contact with laying hens are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your egg supply, then multiply by 100.
The training program and accompanying documentation must include, but not be limited to: facility requirements, humane animal handling, animal behavior, and injury and disease detection. Examples of implementation of these criteria by all stockpersons are understanding the physical and environmental requirements for a laying hen, understanding the relation between litter condition and welfare outcomes such as hock burn or footpad dermatitis, recognizing normal flock activity and laying hen behavior. Additional training may be required for catching crews, transport crews, or euthanasia crews, and outside workers like vaccination crews, beak trimming crews, and depopulation crews. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples of initiatives that meet these requirements for B1.
Initial training is necessary to perform job duties. Training must be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices (not necessarily on an annual basis) and to prevent training exhaustion. See the Background Information for further reading on the relation between stockperson training and animal welfare.
Perform this calculation using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Poultry: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in poultry supply chains (broilers and laying hens) including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PY/

Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO): Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO) is an animal auditing and certification organization in the United States. PAACO promotes the humane treatment of animals through education and certification of animal auditors as well as the review and/or certification of animal audit instruments, assessments, and programs. https://animalauditor.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Laying Hens: The RSPCA provides a scheme for care and handling of laying hens taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. http://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/layinghens

The Poultry Passport: The British Poultry Training Scheme developed the Poultry Passport, a secure and consistent online training recording system for poultry workers in the UK. Companies can view the Poultry Passports of all their employees. https://www.poultrypassport.org/

UEP Animal Husbandry Guidelines: Animal Husbandry Guidelines for United States Egg Laying Flocks, 2017 edition. https://uepcertified.com/uep-certified-resources/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pullets, Layers and Spent Fowl: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of pullets, layers, and spent fowl. https://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/poultry-layers/Layer_SCReport_2013.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/3828_Hen_Welfare_LR.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Laying Hens: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of laying hens. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/732227/code-of-practice-welfare-of-laying-hens-pullets.pdf

Poultry Farmer Skill and Knowledge Checklist: A checklist outlining the types of skills and knowledge useful to a poultry egg producer. https://extension.umaine.edu/publications/1203e/

Stockperson Training and Animal Welfare: This Revue Scientifique et Technique provides a paper titled: Training to improve stockperson beliefs and behavior towards livestock enhances welfare and productivity. https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D13660.PDF

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsAnimal Health Management - Pig FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms with a verified veterinary-client-patient relationship, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a veterinary-client-patient relationship must meet the criteria of the American Veterinary Medical Association or the European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. See Certifications, Standards & Tools for more details.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms with designated individual(s) in place to evaluate animal health and welfare, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. A designated individual must have the skills to evaluate animal health and welfare and be verifiably trained and experienced in managing pig health and welfare. Evaluation of animal health and welfare includes pig activity and behavior, prevalence of diseases, injury detection, and availability of water and feed.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms with an animal health performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. Animal health monitoring systems should include monitoring the prevalence of disease and incidence of injuries and evaluation of data for information to integrate into management and communication with animal care teams (including veterinarians). An animal health performance monitoring system includes metrics on: production performance, incidence of common injuries, and prevalence of diseases. See the Background Information for factsheets that include a list of common diseases and injuries in pig production.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals: The European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals is a multi-stakeholder platform linking best practice with animal health and public health and aims to promote the responsible use of medicines in animals in the European Union. https://www.epruma.eu/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Federation of Veterinarians of Europe - Herd Health Plan: The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe provides a policy paper that outlines objectives and benefits of a Herd Health Plan (HHP) for farms. A HHP aims to enhance animal health and welfare and quality of products by decreasing the use of veterinary medicinal products and feed additives and properly planning preventative healthcare. This paper also provides guidelines for the prevention of epizootics and zoonotic diseases and information about good husbandry practices. https://www.fve.org/publications/herd-health-plan/

PEDV Factsheet: Factsheet on Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) published by the US National Pork Board. https://porkcdn.s3.amazonaws.com/sites/all/files/documents/PED-WhatIsIt.pdf

PRRS Factsheet: Factsheet on Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) published by the OIE. https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Our_scientific_expertise/docs/pdf/PRRS_guide_web_bulletin.pdf

Pain Management and the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act: National Pork Board provides information on pain management and the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act. http://porkcdn.s3.amazonaws.com/sites/all/files/documents/Factsheets/Well-Being/PainManagement.pdf

Pig Health and disease Factsheets: Inventory of most common pig health and diseases in Australia. https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/animals-and-livestock/pigs/health

Swine Health Information Centre: Factsheets on most common pig diseases. https://www.swinehealth.org/fact-sheets/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.

Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR): A cooperative relationship between a veterinarian, a client and the patient. A VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians and their clients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. Veterinarians and their clients may choose to establish a VCPR, and to decide on veterinary medical care under the terms of the VCPR. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the VCPR in the US, which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Pig Transport and SlaughterCalculate B1 as the mass of your pork supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your pork supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your pork supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second or third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your pork supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 or B2, as described by OIE, pigs should not be transported if they are not fit to travel. For those pigs fit to travel, the number of journeys and the length of time should be minimized. Loading and unloading procedures should minimize pig stress, prevent injury, and use facilities that promote calm and safe pig movement. Protection from extreme temperatures and other extreme weather conditions is provided. Adequate feed and water is available when required.
To be included in B3 or B4, as described by OIE, pigs should be treated humanely before and during all slaughter procedures, including pre-slaughter stunning for non-ritual slaughter. The pre-slaughter stunning must render the pig insensible to pain until death occurs. The minimization of fear, stress, and pain is included in humane treatment.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs

Transport Quality Assurance (TQA): A quality assurance program designed for transporters, producers, and handlers of pigs. http://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/TQA/2014-Version5/TQAHandbookV5.PDF

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Pigs FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your pork supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the pig farm, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your pork supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the pig farm, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1 and B2 must be mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 or B2, as described by OIE, efforts should be taken to achieve minimization of pain, risk of injury, and transmission of diseases or parasites to pigs; a physical environment in which the air quality, temperature, and humidity supports good pig health; a structural and social environment that allows pigs to rest comfortably, provides opportunities for physical and cognitive activity, and allows for the opportunity to perform beneficial innate and positive behaviors. Pigs should have access to sufficient water and appropriate feed, and be free from hunger and thirst. The handling of pigs should foster a positive relationship between humans and pigs and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress.
Genetic selection should take into account the health and welfare of pigs.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare PolicyRespond with the option that most closely reflects your company's animal welfare policy.
For B, your company must publicly disclose a policy statement that contains a broad commitment to farm animal welfare. The policy must include no tolerance for abuse and a commitment to internationally recognized farm animal welfare principles, for example the OIE principles.
For C, in addition to B, your company must publicly disclose how your commitment to farm animal welfare is implemented and the policy must include the following: A clear statement on why animal welfare is important for your company, a commitment to comply with relevant legislation, a statement on expected farm animal welfare standards, a commitment to continuous improvement and public disclosure of animal welfare performance, and a description of the processes to ensure the effective implementation of your policy, for example senior management oversight, performance monitoring, or corrective actions.
This question aligns with the Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare, listed in the Certifications, Standards & Tools. Other standards or tools may also be applicable.
BBFAW Methodology Report: The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) Methodology Report 2015 provides an independent assessment of how 90 of the world’s largest food companies are managing and reporting on farm animal welfare and assesses the progress that has been made. BBFAW is designed to improve corporate reporting on farm animal welfare and drive tangible improvements in the farm animal welfare practices and performance. https://www.bbfaw.com/benchmark/World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Corrective actions: Prompt actions taken to eliminate the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsAssessment at Slaughter - PigsCalculate B1 as the average percentage of pigs with no or mild tail lesions per delivery, weighted by the mass of pork supplied by each delivery at the slaughter facility. For each delivery, calculate the percentage of pigs with no or mild tail lesions as the number of pigs with no or mild tail lesions divided by the total number of pigs delivered, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, the tail area must not show lesions, or show healed or mild lesions. Do not include pigs that show evidence of chewing or puncture wounds with swelling, infection, or complete tail amputation. See the Background Information for definitions on scoring tail lesions.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of pale, soft and exudative meat per delivery, weighted by the mass of pork supplied by each delivery at the slaughter facility. For each delivery, calculate the percentage of pale, soft and exudative meat as the mass of pale, soft and exudative meat, divided by the total mass of pork, then multiply by 100.
If primary data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the pig farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of pork supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Transport Quality Assurance (TQA): A quality assurance program designed for transporters, producers, and handlers of pigs. http://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/TQA/2014-Version5/TQAHandbookV5.PDF
GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Paper on the association between tail lesion score, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in slaughter pigs: Veterinary Medicine provides a peer reviewed paper with the title: Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fvets.2016.00024/full#B12

Paper on the relationship between tail lesions and lung health in slaughter pigs: Preventive Veterinary Medicine provides a peer reviewed paper with the title: Relationship between tail lesions and lung health in slaughter pigs. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016758771630085X

Scientific opinion on the use of animal-based measures to assess welfare in pigs: The European Food and Safety Authority panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides a peer reviewed paper on animal-based measures to assess welfare in pigs. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2512

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
N/A
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsBody Condition – SowsCalculate B1 as the average percentage of sows in your supply chain that showed an adequate body condition, weighted by the number of sows present on each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the percentage of sows that showed an adequate body condition as the number of sows with an adequate body condition, divided by the average number of sows scored, then multiply by 100.
For the United States, the Pork Quality Assurance program provides a 1-5 scale body condition score is applied for pigs, where a body condition from 2 or higher indicates an adequate body condition and should be included in B1. For Europe, the Welfare Quality protocol describes a 0-2 scale for body condition score and multi body regions that need to be assessed. A body condition score of 0 or 1, should be included in B1. Globally, multiple body condition scoring systems are applied. The essence of all body condition scoring systems is that an animal is scored within the perspective of the breed, age and lactation stage. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for reference to body condition scoring systems applicable to sows.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the animal farm operations are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the number of sows for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total number of sows in your supply chain, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1, then report 0% B2.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Example Calculation for BCS: Site Assessment Guide by National Pork Board includes formulas, calculations and tools to help the Site Assessor complete the Assessment and provides examples for calculating the Body Condition Score (BCS) for pork. http://porkcdn.s3.amazonaws.com/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V2.0/SiteAssessment/SiteAssessmentGuideV2.0.pdf

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
N/AAdequate: Sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need.

Body condition score: Values the animal's body condition taking into account the perspective of the breed, age, and lactation stage. An emaciated or skin body condition decreases the animal's welfare.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsCastration Management - PigsCalculate B1 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms that do not castrate boars, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. Do not include the pork supply that came from pig farms that applied immunocastration.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms that applied immunocastration, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your pork supply from that came from pig farms that have a standard operating procedure for castration, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. Include any supply that came from pigs that were not castrated or immunocastrated in response options B1 and B2 respectively. To be included in B3, the standard operating procedure includes that any drug used for pain mitigation must be authorized by law, castration performed at any age must be done with analgesics to help control post-procedure pain, and castration performed after 10 days must be done with anesthesia and analgesia.
The percentages reported for B1 through B3 must be mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Pain Management and the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act: National Pork Board provides information on pain management and the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act. http://porkcdn.s3.amazonaws.com/sites/all/files/documents/Factsheets/Well-Being/PainManagement.pdf

Scientific opinion on welfare aspects of the castration of piglets: The European Food and Safety Authority Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides a scientific opinion on the welfare aspects of the castration of piglets. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/91

Welfare Implications of Swine Castration: Peer-reviewed literature review on the Welfare Implications of Swine Castration prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-swine-castration

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsCulling Management - PigsCalculate B1 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms that have a standard operating procedure for individual culling, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a standard operating procedure for culling should be aligned with the culling and euthanasia guidelines from the Pork Quality Checkoff (PQA) and the American Association of Swine Veterinarians in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. The PQA guidelines include the use of approved practices to euthanize as described by the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, a written euthanasia protocol, and applying timely euthanasia with the appropriate method. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms that track the reasons for culling, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the method and reasons of culling must be tracked.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms that have a time-bound goal to abolish culling using manual blunt force trauma, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. Manual blunt force trauma includes techniques such as swinging against a solid surface or use of a blunt object (e.g., hammer). Use of non-penetrating captive bolts are not considered manual blunt force trauma for the purposes of this KPI.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) provides a policy document on euthanasia of animals. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdf

On-Farm Euthanasia of Swine Recommendations for the Producer: American Association of Swine Veterinarians provide recommendations for on-farm euthanasia of swine. https://www.aasv.org/aasv/documents/SwineEuthanasia.pdf

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsHousing Conditions - Finishing PigsInsights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of finishing pigs in your supply chain that had the ability to turn around and change posture, weighted by the mass of pork supplied by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of finishing pigs that had the ability to turn around and change posture, divided by the total number of finishing pigs, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, finishing should not be tethered at any time. The space allowance for finishing pigs must meet the minimum requirements per weight category as specified by an internationally recognized standard or certification. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples on minimum space allowance per pig.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of finishing pigs in your supply chain that had access to a clean, dry and solid lying area, weighted by the mass of pork supplied by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of finishing pigs that had access to a clean, dry and solid lying area, divided by the total number of finishing pigs, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, the lying area must be kept dry, and pen floors, including the dunging area, should be drained effectively. If applicable, bedding material must be dry enough not to transfer mud or manure on the pigs’ body.
Calculate B3 as the percentage of finishing pigs in your supply chain that had access to rooting enrichment material, weighted by the mass of pork supplied by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of finishing pigs that had access to rooting enrichment material, divided by the total number of finishing pigs, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the enrichment material need to be proven to increase pig welfare, and be manipulable by the pigs. Examples of rooting enrichment materials include but are not limited to: straw, wood chippings or wood shavings. The options for enrichment may depend on the type of flooring system. Some enrichment materials will require at least partly-solid flooring.
Calculate B4 as the percentage of finishing pigs in your supply chain that had access to non-rooting enrichment material, weighted by the mass of pork supplied by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of finishing pigs that had access to non-rooting enrichment material, divided by the total number of finishing pigs, then multiply by 100. To be included in B4, the enrichment material need to be proven to increase pig welfare, and be manipulable by the pigs. Examples of non-rooting enrichment materials include but are not limited to: ropes, hessian cloths or burlaps, wood blocks, or rubber sheets. The options for enrichment may depend on the type of flooring system. Some enrichment materials will require at least partly-solid flooring.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs
Basic Requirements for Pig Housing: The Australian Department of Agriculture and Fisheries provides a list of basic requirements for pig housing. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/business-priorities/agriculture/animals/pigs/piggery-management/housing/basic-housing

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Guidelines on the Provision of Enrichment Material for Pigs: Guidelines from the European Commission on the use of enrichment material for pigs. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_food-safety/information_sources/docs/ahw/20140701_guideline_enrichment_en.pdf

Scientific opinion on Animal Health and Welfare aspects of Pig Housing and Husbandry systems: The European Food and Safety Authority panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides a peer reviewed paper on welfare aspects of housing and husbandry for adult breeding boars, pregnant, farrowing sows and unweaned piglets. https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007193328#readcube-epdf

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Environmental enrichment: Enrichment is a dynamic process for enhancing animal environments within the context of the animals' behavioral biology and natural history. Environmental changes are made with the goal of increasing the animals' behavioral choices and drawing out their species-appropriate behaviors.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsHousing Conditions - SowsInsights in production systems are important for animal welfare assessments as they determine the preconditions for adequate welfare. From the perspective of transparency and data availability, information on housing is often easier to assemble than data on the actual outcome, measured at the animal. However, information on the production system alone cannot be used as a complete proxy for animal welfare. Amongst others, factors such as the farmers’ management, training and education, climate, and genetics affect animal welfare as well. This THESIS KPI set aims to provide a set of KPIs that is balanced between management, housing, and animal-based metrics.
Calculate B1 as the average percentage of sows in your supply chain that have the ability to turn around and change posture at all stages of production, including farrowing and post service, weighted by number of sows housed by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of sows that have the ability to turn around and change posture, divided by the total number of sows, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, sows must not be tethered at any time, gestation and farrowing crates must allow the sow to lie fully outstretched and turn around freely.
Calculate B2 as the average percentage of sows in your supply chain that are housed in groups during gestation, weighted by number of sows housed by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of sows that are housed in groups during gestation, divided by the total number of sows, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, group housing of sows must be managed in a way to minimize aggressive behavior.
Calculate B3 as the average percentage of sows in your supply chain have access to a clean, dry and solid lying area, weighted by number of sows housed by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of sows that have access to a clean, dry and solid lying area, divided by the total number of sows, then multiply by 100. To be included in B3, the lying area must be kept dry, and pen floors, including the dunging area, should be drained effectively. If applicable, bedding material must be dry enough not to transfer mud or manure on the pigs’ body.
Calculate B4 as the average percentage of sows in your supply chain that have access to rooting enrichment material, weighted by number of sows housed by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of sows that have access to rooting enrichment material, divided by the total number of sows, then multiply by 100. To be included in B4, the enrichment material need to be proven to increase pig welfare, and be manipulable by the pigs. Examples of rooting enrichment materials include straw, wood chippings or wood shavings. The options for enrichment may depend on the type of flooring system. Some enrichment materials will require at least partly-solid flooring.
Calculate B5 as the average percentage of sows in your supply chain that have access to non-rooting enrichment material, weighted by number of sows housed by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the number of sows that have access to non-rooting enrichment material, divided by the total number of sows, then multiply by 100. To be included in B5, the enrichment material need to be proven to increase pig welfare, and be manipulable by the pigs. Examples of non-rooting enrichment materials include ropes, hessian cloths or, burlaps, wood blocks, or rubber sheets. The options for enrichment may depend on the type of flooring system. Some enrichment materials will require at least partly-solid flooring.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs
Basic Requirements for Pig Housing: The Australian Department of Agriculture and Fisheries provides a list of basic requirements for pig housing. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/business-priorities/agriculture/animals/pigs/piggery-management/housing/basic-housing

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Guidelines on the Provision of Enrichment Material for Pigs: Guidelines from the European Commission on the use of enrichment material for pigs. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_food-safety/information_sources/docs/ahw/20140701_guideline_enrichment_en.pdf

Scientific opinion on Animal Health and Welfare aspects of Pig Housing and Husbandry systems: The European Food and Safety Authority panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides a peer reviewed paper on welfare aspects of housing and husbandry for adult breeding boars, pregnant, farrowing sows and unweaned piglets. https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007193328#readcube-epdf

Welfare Implications of Gestation Sow Housing: Paper from the AVMA on key advantages and disadvantages of housing systems in relation to sow welfare. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-gestation-sow-housing

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Environmental enrichment: Enrichment is a dynamic process for enhancing animal environments within the context of the animals' behavioral biology and natural history. Environmental changes are made with the goal of increasing the animals' behavioral choices and drawing out their species-appropriate behaviors.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsMortality Rate – PigsMortality rate is an indirect measure of animal welfare. It adds value to the interpretation of other key performance indicators concerning culling management, animal welfare certification and audits, housing systems, and animal health management.
Calculate B1 as the average mortality rate of piglets before weaning at the pig farms in your supply chain, weighted by number of sows housed by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the mortality rate of piglets before weaning as the total number of deceased piglets prior to weaning, divided by the total number of piglets born alive, then multiply by 100. The number of deceased piglets is calculated as the number of piglets born alive, minus the number of piglets that have been weaned. Mortality is defined as the uncontrolled death of a pig as well as cases of euthanasia. Stillborn is excluded from B1.
Calculate B3 as the average weaner and finisher mortality rate at the pig farms in your supply chain, weighted by the mass of pork supplied by each pig farm. For each pig farm, calculate the mortality rate as the number of deceased weaners or fattening pigs, divided by the total number of pigs that started finishing, then multiply by 100.
If primary farm data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the pig farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 as the number of sows for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total number of sows present in your supply chain, then multiply by 100. Calculate B2 as the mass of pork supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimates for B1 and B3, then report 0% B2 and B4.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs

Welfare Quality, Science and Society Improving Animal Welfare: The European Welfare Quality project provides protocols for measuring animal welfare for cattle, pigs, and poultry. http://www.welfarequalitynetwork.net/en-us/reports/assessment-protocols/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Mortality in Piglets: A review on piglet mortality. https://www.proof.net.au/Resources/Documents/Piglet%20Mortality%20Review.pdf
Mortality: The uncontrolled death of animals and cases of euthanasia and emergency slaughter at the farm.

Weaning: The transfer from a milk-based diet to an adult fibrous diet.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsPainful Procedures Management – PigsCalculate B1 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pigs that were not ear notched, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pigs that were not tail docked, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, a pig farm should not have applied tail docking, unless medically necessary, and the environmental design should allow the avoidance of tail docking.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pigs that have a standard operating procedure for tail docking, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. Include any supply that came from pigs that were not tail docked in both response option B2 and B3. To be included in B3, the standard operating procedure for tail docking must meet the recommendations by the American Veterinary Medical Association, or equivalent in other geographies. These recommendations include that piglets should be tail docked as early as possible and in conjunction with appropriate analgesia. Any drug used for pain mitigation must be authorized by law.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pigs that were not teeth clipped, or grinded, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B2, a pig farm should not have applied teeth clipping and grinding, and the environmental design should allow the avoidance of teeth clipping and grinding.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms that have a standard operating procedure for teeth clipping and grinding, divided by the total mass of pork supply, then multiply by 100. Include any supply that came from pigs that were not teeth clipped and grinded in response options B4 and B5. To be included in B5, the standard operation procedure on teeth clipping and grinding must include only clip teeth of piglets that show aggressive behavior to littermates or nursing sows, clip the teeth as early as possible and avoid shattering of teeth and clipping too short or too sharp, remove only one-third to one-half of the tooth, and avoid teeth clipping on piglets with a low birth weight.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Pain Management and the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act: National Pork Board provides information on pain management and the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act. http://porkcdn.s3.amazonaws.com/sites/all/files/documents/Factsheets/Well-Being/PainManagement.pdf

Welfare Implications of Teeth Clipping, Tail Docking and Permanent Identification of Piglets: Peer-reviewed literature review on the Welfare Implications of Teeth Clipping, Tail Docking and Permanent Identification of Piglets prepared by the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Division. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/literature-reviews/welfare-implications-teeth-clipping-tail-docking-and-permanent-identification-piglets

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Standard operating procedure: Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written instructions to document how to perform a routine activity. SOPs document the steps of key processes to help ensure the consistency and quality of the output.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsPre-Slaughter Stunning Transparency - PigsCalculate B1 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pigs that were effectively stunned with a captive bolt, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your pork supply came from pigs that were effectively electrically stunned, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your pork supply came from pigs that were effectively stunned in a controlled atmosphere using carbon dioxide, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your pork supply came from pigs that were effectively stunned in a controlled atmosphere using a mixture of inert gases and carbon dioxide, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100. Examples inert gases are argon, helium, nitrogen, and methane. Include your supply in B3, when you are unable to determine what the method of controlled atmosphere stunning has been used for stunning.
Calculate B5 as the mass of your pork supply came from pigs that were effectively stunned prior to slaughter using other methods, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
The percentages reported for B1 through B4 are mutually exclusive and their sum must not exceed 100%. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
N/AAnimal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Captive-Bolt Stunning of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Association in the United Kingdom provides guidance on captive-bolt stunning of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/publications/captive-bolt-stunning-of-livestock-updated-logo-2016.pdf

Carbon Dioxide Stunning and Killing: This article explains the theory, practice, and use of carbon dioxide stunning and killing techniques. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/technical-notes/TN19-carbon-dioxide-pigs-HSA.pdf

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Electric stunning of pigs for slaughter: This article gives an overview of electric stunning of pigs for slaughter. This information can be used to develop acceptable electric stunning methods. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2651066/

Electrical Stunning of Red Meat Animals: An article explaining the theory, practice, and use of electricity to stun and kill animals. It provides essential technical information to abattoir supervisors, veterinary surgeons, meat hygiene inspectors, and maintenance engineers. It can assist management in the selection of equipment and provide operators with background information to help them carry out their job competently and safely. http://www.hsa.org.uk/downloads/publications/electricalstunningdownload-updated-2016-logo.pdf

FAO: Guidelines for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock: Document describing basic principles for humane handling, transport, and slaughter of livestock. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6909e/x6909e00.htm#Contents

Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: The American Meat Institute provides a guide on recommended practices including transportation audit guidelines and stunning guidelines. http://animalhandling.org/producers/guidelines_audits

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs

Scientific opinion on Monitoring Procedures at Slaughterhouses for Pigs: The European Food and Safety Authority panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides a peer reviewed paper on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for pigs. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3523

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Stunning: Stunning is the process of rendering the animal unconscious prior to slaughter.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsStockperson Training - PigsCalculate B1 as the mass of your pork supply that came from pig farms that have documentation that those who are in contact with pigs are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your pork supply that came from transporters that have documentation that those who are in contact with pigs are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your pork supply that came from slaughter facilities that have documentation that those who are in contact with pigs are competent and trained in proper handling procedures, divided by the total mass of your pork supply, then multiply by 100.
The training program and accompanying documentation must include, but not be limited to: facility requirements, humane animal handling, animal behavior, and injury and disease detection. Examples of implementation of these criteria by all stockpersons are understanding the physical and environmental requirements for a pig, understanding stress factors like other pigs, personnel, strange noises, sights, sounds, and smells, recognizing common diseases, illnesses, and injuries, recognizing normal pig activity and behavior. Additional training may need to be required for handling around castration, oral dosing, and injections, or to outside workers like transporters. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for examples of initiatives that meet these requirements.
Initial training is necessary to perform job duties. Training must be renewed as appropriate to maintain competency and implementation of good practices (not necessarily on an annual basis) and to prevent training exhaustion. See the Background Information for further reading on the relation between stockperson training and animal welfare.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO): Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO) is an animal auditing and certification organization in the United States. PAACO promotes the humane treatment of animals through education and certification of animal auditors as well as the review and/or certification of animal audit instruments, assessments, and programs. https://animalauditor.org/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs

Transport Quality Assurance (TQA): A quality assurance program designed for transporters, producers, and handlers of pigs. http://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/TQA/2014-Version5/TQAHandbookV5.PDF
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Pigs: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/code-of-recommendations-for-the-welfare-of-livestock-pigs

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8

Stockperson Training and Animal Welfare: This Revue Scientifique et Technique provides a paper titled: Training to improve stockperson beliefs and behavior towards livestock enhances welfare and productivity. https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D13660.PDF

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Stockperson: A professional manager of animals. A stockperson's attitude and behavior effects animal welfare and productivity.
Animal Welfare - PigsAnimal Welfare - PigsTransportation to Slaughter - PigsCalculate B1 as the number of your suppliers that publicly disclose a transportation plan that specifies how animal welfare is covered during transportation to slaughter, divided by the total number of your suppliers, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, your company should publicly disclose a transportation plan that specifies how animal welfare is covered during transportation to slaughter. The transportation plan must meet the guidelines provided by the Transport Quality Assurance in the United States, or equivalent in other geographies. These guidelines include handling, training, transport conditions, record keeping, and equipment. See the Certifications, Standards &Tools for more information.
Calculate B3 as the average dead-on-arrival rate per delivery at the slaughter facility, weighted by the mass pork supplied by each delivery. For each delivery at the slaughter facility, calculate the dead-on-arrival rate as the number of deceased pigs during transport, divided by the number of pigs that were transported, then multiply by 100.
If primary data are unavailable for any of your supply, you may use a regional estimate to answer B1 and B3. Do not combine primary data and regional estimates. To answer B1 and B3 using regional estimates, you should only use estimates from a sub-country area such as an agricultural zone or region, eco-region, or geo-political boundary (e.g., state, county, department) where the pig farms are located. A regional estimate must be based on a study that is representative of the production system, based on production data not older than 3 years and published in a publicly available document.
Calculate B2 and B4 as the mass of pork supply for which you were able to obtain data, divided by the total mass of pork supply, then multiply by 100. If you have reported regional estimate for B1 and B3, then report 0% for B2 and B4.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for Land Transport: The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry provides a standard for land transport of livestock. http://www.animalwelfarestandards.net.au/land-transport/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

EU Regulation on Animal Welfare during transport: Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:f83007

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Animal Welfare Add-On Module for Pigs/Finishers: GlobalG.A.P. provides an add-on module for finisher pigs with control points and compliance criteria on animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p.-add-on/sustainable-meat-initiative/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Pigs: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in the pork supply chain including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/PG/

Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) Education handbook: Provides guidance on implementing a veterinarian-patient-client relationship and animal health monitoring. https://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/PQAPlus/V3.0/BinderMaterial/Tab%202/1%20PQAhandbook.pdf

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Pigs: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of pigs taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/pigs

Transport Quality Assurance (TQA): A quality assurance program designed for transporters, producers, and handlers of pigs. http://d3fns0a45gcg1a.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/documents/TQA/2014-Version5/TQAHandbookV5.PDF
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Transport of Animals: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals during transport. https://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/pig_code_of_practice.pdf

Code of Practice for the Welfare of Pigs: The Irish Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of pigs. http://www.fawac.ie/media/fawac/content/publications/animalwelfare/CodePracticePigWelfare.pdf

Online Guide on Transport of Livestock: The Humane Slaughter Organization in the United Kingdom provides information on issues, considerations, and best practices in transport and slaughter of livestock. http://www.hsa.org.uk/transport-of-livestock-introduction/introduction-8

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Dead-on-arrival: Dead-on-arrival (DOA) or brought-in-dead (BID), is a term that indicates an animal is clinically dead upon the moment of arrival.
Animal Welfare - TurkeyAnimal Welfare - TurkeyAnimal Health Management – Turkey FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that came from turkey farms with a verified veterinary-client-patient relationship, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100. To be included in B1, a veterinary-client-patient relationship must meet the criteria of the American Veterinary Medical Association or the European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. See Certifications, Standards & Tools for more details.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that came from turkey farms with designated individual(s) in place to evaluate animal health and welfare, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100. A designated individual must have the skills to evaluate animal health and welfare and be verifiably trained and experienced in managing turkey health and welfare. Evaluation of animal health and welfare includes flock activity and behavior, prevalence of diseases, injury detection, and availability of water and feed.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that came from turkey farms with an animal health performance monitoring system in place, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100. Animal health monitoring systems should include monitoring the prevalence of disease and incidence of injuries and evaluation of data for information to integrate into management and communication with animal care teams (including veterinarians). An animal health performance monitoring system includes production performance, incidence of common injuries, and prevalence of diseases. See the Background Information for factsheets that include a list of common diseases and injuries in turkeys.
If you are unable obtain data or otherwise determine your response to a response option, enter zero percent. Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. The VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians, their clients, and their patients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/pet-owners/petcare/veterinarian-client-patient-relationship-vcpr

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Australian Veterinary Association (AVA): The Australian Veterinary Association (AVA) governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in AVA Members Code of Professional Conduct. Any prescribing or supply of veterinary medicines should only occur within the bounds of a valid VCPR. https://www.ava.com.au/library-journals-and-resources/ava-other-resources/prescribing-guidelines/client-relationship-and-understanding/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals: The European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals is a multi-stakeholder platform linking best practice with animal health and public health and aims to promote the responsible use of medicines in animals in the European Union. https://www.epruma.eu/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Turkey: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in turkey supply chains including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/TY/

National Turkey Federation (NTF) Standards of Conduct: The NTF provides Standards of Conduct for the ethical treatment of animals, meat quality, labor rights and workers health and safety, and the wise use of land and water resources. https://www.eatturkey.org/animal-welfare/standards

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Turkeys: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of turkeys taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/turkeys

Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ): The Veterinary Council of New Zealand (VCNZ) registers and regulates veterinarians in New Zealand, and governs the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR), which is defined in VCNZ Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinarians. The Code sets out strict requirements for VCPR. https://vetcouncil.org.nz/Web/Web/2.Resources/Code_Of_Conduct.aspx
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Turkeys and Breeding Turkeys: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat turkeys and breeding turkeys. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare/turkeys-welfare-recommendations

Poultry Disease Factsheets: Inventory of 140 diseases in poultry flocks. The factsheets contain information on signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. http://www.thepoultrysite.com/diseaseinfo/

Poultry Health and Disease Factsheets: Inventory of most common poultry health and diseases in Australia. https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/animals-and-livestock/poultry-and-birds/health-disease

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Animal health program: A farm-specific plan for how to maintain and improve animal health and welfare written and regularly updated by the farmer together with a veterinarian and other relevant technical advisors.

Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR): A cooperative relationship between a veterinarian, a client and the patient. A VCPR is an essential basis for interaction between veterinarians and their clients and is critical to providing quality veterinary care. Veterinarians and their clients may choose to establish a VCPR, and to decide on veterinary medical care under the terms of the VCPR. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) licenses and regulates the VCPR in the US, which is defined in AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics.
Animal Welfare - TurkeyAnimal Welfare - TurkeyAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Turkey Breeder and Turkey FarmsCalculate B1 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the hatchery stage, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the turkey farm stage, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the turkey farm stage, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Perform these calculations using data from a 12-month period that ended within 12 months of the date you respond to this question.
Government regulations or parties in the supply chain can initiate these audits. Regulations, audits, and certifications that align with the animal welfare standards as described in Section 7 of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are well-enforced by the implementation of auditing systems can be included in your calculations. See the Certifications, Standards & Tools for more information.
To be included in B1 through B4, as described by OIE, efforts should be taken to achieve minimization of pain, risk of injury, and transmission of diseases or parasites to turkeys; a physical environment in which the air quality, temperature, and humidity supports good turkey health; a structural and social environment that allows turkey to rest comfortably, provides opportunities for physical and cognitive activity, and allows for the opportunity to perform beneficial innate and positive behaviors. Turkeys should have access to sufficient water and appropriate feed and be free from hunger and thirst. The handling of turkeys should foster a positive relationship between humans and turkeys and should not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress.
Genetic selection should take into account the health and welfare of turkeys.
American Humane Certified Animal Welfare: American Humane Certified Animal Welfare is a third-party certification program for animal welfare in the United States. American Humane Certified Animal Welfare Standards are available for broilers, laying hens, turkeys, dairy cattle, beef cattle, and swine. http://www.humaneheartland.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=106&jsmallfib=1&dir=JSROOT/Animal+Welfare+Full+Standards+%2B+Supplements

Animal Welfare Approved: Animal Welfare Approved provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. All standards address every aspect of each species’ lifecycle needs from birth to death. https://agreenerworld.org/certifications/animal-welfare-approved/

Certified Humane Raised and Handled: Humane Farm Animal Care provides standards for all commonly domesticated farmed animals. https://certifiedhumane.org/how-we-work/our-standards/

Global Animal Partnership: The Global Animal Partnership provides a five-step animal welfare rating program that facilitates continuous improvement in farm animal agriculture. https://globalanimalpartnership.org/

GlobalG.A.P. Integrated Farm Assurance Checklist for Turkey: GlobalG.A.P. provides a checklist with control points and compliance criteria on various issues in turkey supply chains including the issue of animal welfare. https://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/for-producers/globalg.a.p./integrated-farm-assurance-ifa/livestock/TY/

List of Animal Welfare Programs: TSC has compiled a list of animal welfare standards, certifications, and programs. This list may assist users in choosing a program that fits their needs. https://www.sustainabilityconsortium.org/tsc-downloads/animal-welfare-organizations-and-programs/

Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS): The Irish Bord Bia Poultry Products Quality Assurance Scheme (PPQAS) is an integrated scheme involving the producer and the processing plant working in partnership to provide the customer with quality assured product. https://www.bordbia.ie/farmers-growers/get-involved/become-quality-assured/poultry-products-quality-assurance-scheme-ppqas/

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Animal Welfare Standards for Turkeys: The RSPCA provides a scheme for the rearing, handling, transport, and slaughter of turkeys taking into account legislation, government welfare codes, scientific research, veterinary advice, recommendations of the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC), and practical experience in the farming industry. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/turkeys

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code: Chapter 7 of the OIE Terrestrial Health Code outlines the internationally recognized principles of animal welfare, commonly known as "The Five Freedoms". https://www.oie.int/en/standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/
Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Hatching Eggs, Breeders, Chickens, and Turkeys: The Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council provides a code of practice for the welfare of poultry. http://www.nfacc.ca/pdfs/codes/poultry_code_EN.pdf

Code of Recommendations for the Welfare of Meat Turkeys and Breeding Turkeys: The UK Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs provides a recommended code of practice for the welfare of meat turkeys and breeding turkeys. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/poultry-on-farm-welfare/turkeys-welfare-recommendations
Animal welfare: Animal welfare refers to the well-being of an animal and how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. A good state of welfare varies substantially between different contexts, but in general an animal is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and not suffering from pain, fear, and distress. Ensuring animal welfare is a human responsibility that requires treatments such as good housing, good care, good feed, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. The treatments that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane management (adapted from The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)).

Second-party audit: An audit conducted by a party having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by another entity on their behalf.

Third-party audit: An audit conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification of conformity to a standard.

Verifiable: Having the ability to demonstrate, through a reputable assessor, the truth or accuracy of a claim.
Animal Welfare - TurkeyAnimal Welfare - TurkeyAnimal Welfare Certifications and Audits - Turkeys Transport and SlaughterCalculate B1 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B2 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the transportation stage, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B3 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that was covered by a current comprehensive animal welfare certification OR had regular and verifiable second- or third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat supply, then multiply by 100.
Calculate B4 as the mass of your turkey meat supply that had regular and verifiable third-party audits at the slaughter stage, divided by the total mass of your turkey meat sup